Methionine

Publication Title: 
Medical Hypotheses

Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid.

Author(s): 
McCarty, Mark F.
Barroso-Aranda, Jorge
Contreras, Francisco
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

This review describes our current understanding of the "traffic lights" that regulate sulfur flow through the methionine bionetwork in liver, which supplies two major homeostatic systems governing cellular methylation and antioxidant potential. Theoretical concepts derived from mathematical modeling of this metabolic nexus provide insights into the properties of this system, some of which seem to be paradoxical at first glance. Cellular needs supported by this network are met by use of parallel metabolic tracks that are differentially controlled by intermediates in the pathway.

Author(s): 
Martinov, M. V.
Vitvitsky, V. M.
Banerjee, R.
Ataullakhanov, F. I.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Restriction of dietary methionine by 80% slows the progression of aged-related diseases and prolongs lifespan in rodents. A salient feature of the methionine restriction phenotype is the significant reduction of adipose tissue mass, which is associated with improvement of insulin sensitivity. These beneficial effects of MR involve a host of metabolic adaptations leading to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, elevated energy expenditure, changes of lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis, and decreased oxidative damage and inflammation.

Author(s): 
Perrone, Carmen E.
Malloy, Virginia L.
Orentreich, David S.
Orentreich, Norman
Publication Title: 
Rejuvenation Research

Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are a family of molecules that derive from ornithine through a decarboxylation process. They are essential for cell growth and proliferation, stabilization of negative charges of DNA, RNA transcription, translation, and apoptosis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that exogenously administered spermidine promotes longevity in yeasts, flies, worms, and human cultured immune cells.

Author(s): 
Pucciarelli, Stefania
Moreschini, Benedetta
Micozzi, Daniela
De Fronzo, Giusi S.
Carpi, Francesco M.
Polzonetti, Valeria
Vincenzetti, Silvia
Mignini, Fiorenzo
Napolioni, Valerio
Publication Title: 
Science of aging knowledge environment: SAGE KE
Author(s): 
Davenport, R. John
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

Caloric restriction (CR) decreases aging rate and mitochondrial ROS (MitROS) production and oxidative stress in rat postmitotic tissues. Low levels of these parameters are also typical traits of long-lived mammals and birds. However, it is not known what dietary components are responsible for these changes during CR. It was recently observed that 40% protein restriction without strong CR also decreases MitROS generation and oxidative stress.

Author(s): 
Pamplona, Reinald
Barja, Gustavo
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

Available information indicates that long-lived mammals have low rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage at their mitochondria. On the other hand, many studies have consistently shown that dietary restriction (DR) in rodents also decreases mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and proteins. It has been observed that protein restriction also decreases mtROS generation and oxidative stress in rat liver, whereas neither carbohydrate nor lipid restriction change these parameters.

Author(s): 
LÛpez-Torres, MÛnica
Barja, Gustavo
Publication Title: 
Revista EspaÒola De GeriatrÌa Y GerontologÌa

Studies on the relationship between oxidative stress and ageing in different vertebrate species and in calorie-restricted animals are reviewed. Endogenous antioxidants inversely correlate with maximum longevity in animal species and experiments modifying levels of these antioxidants can increase survival and mean life span but not maximum life span (MLSP).

Author(s): 
LÛpez-Torres, MÛnica
Barja, Gustavo
Publication Title: 
Medical Hypotheses

Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid.

Author(s): 
McCarty, Mark F.
Barroso-Aranda, Jorge
Contreras, Francisco
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

The mouse has become the favorite mammalian model. Among the many reasons for this privileged position of mice is their genetic proximity to humans, the possibilities of genetically manipulating their genomes and the availability of many tools, mutants and inbred strains. Also in the field of aging, mice have become very robust and reliable research tools.

Author(s): 
Vanhooren, Valerie
Libert, Claude

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