We evaluated the effects of clonidine given orally on sevoflurane requirements for anaesthesia and hypnosis. Patients received either clonidine (5 micrograms.kg-1) by mouth (n = 21) 90 min before surgery or no premedication (n = 21) by random allocation. MAC was calculated using repeated tetanic nerve stimulation with end-tidal sevoflurane concentration increased or decreased by 0.3 vol.% depending on the previous response. MAC awake was calculated according to the response to verbal command.
We have studied 64 ASA I and II patients (aged 20-60 yr) to determine if nitrous oxide affects sevoflurane requirement for achieving 50% probability of no movement in response to verbal commands (MACawake). Patients were allocated randomly to one of four nitrous oxide concentration groups (0, 20, 40 and 60 vol.%). Patients in each group received sevoflurane at two different end-tidal concentrations according to a predetermined randomization table.
The effect of thiopental and sevoflurane (1 MAC, 2 MAC) on hemodynamics was assessed in a randomized study involving 38 adult patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored during the ECT procedure. After oxygenation, hypnosis was induced with a bolus injection of thiopenal (TPS) 4 mg.kg-1. Muscle relaxation was achieved by succinylcholine, 1 mg.kg-1 intravenously before ECT procedure.
We have studied the effect of nitrous oxide on bispectral index (BIS), calculated from a bipolar encephalogram. Inhalation of 70% nitrous oxide resulted in loss of consciousness in all healthy volunteers (n = 10) but no change in BIS. Brief inhalation up to 1.2% sevoflurane also resulted in loss of consciousness in volunteers (n = 5), but with sevoflurane, BIS decreased. BIS and the haemodynamic effects of adding nitrous oxide were also measured during coronary artery bypass surgery in patients (n = 10) receiving midazolam and fentanyl infusions.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies support techniques of intraoperative adjustment under general anesthesia, of eye muscle surgery, based upon the rest position (deviation) to improve surgical results. None, however, have examined the (a)symmetry, per se, of the rest position and its influence on surgical outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective/prospective patient chart data and photographs taken of patients under anesthesia were judged for (a)symmetry of deviation and correlated with (a)symmetry of surgery performed on 51 exotropic patients.
Oculocardial reflex (OCR) occurs particularly through manipulation of the medial rectus muscle and results in a bradycardic arrhythmia. In children the incidence is between 60 and 80%. After using sevoflurane in clinical practice, the absence or non-occurrence of this reflex was observed. The data of 180 healthy children aged between four and 14 years who had to undergo strabismus surgery under general anaesthesia were analysed: group I (n = 92), group II (n = 88). All children received standard premedication with midazolam, no anticholinergic drugs were administered.
The bispectral index (BIS) has been developed in adults and correlates well with clinical hypnotic effects of anesthetics. We investigated whether BIS reflects clinical markers of hypnosis and demonstrates agent dose-responsiveness in infants and children. In an observational arm of this study, BIS values in children undergoing general anesthesia were observed and compared with similar data collected previously in a study of adults. In a second arm of the study, a range of steady-state end-tidal concentrations of sevoflurane was administered and corresponding BIS documented.
INTRODUCTION: Electroencephalographic monitoring is one of the techniques used to measure hypnosis during anesthesia. Efforts to find a means to apply this monitoring function are justified by cases of intraoperative awakening and are in the interest of guaranteeing patient welfare and controlling anesthesia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the changes in two electroencephalographic parameters, the bispectral index (BIS) and the spectral edge frequency 90 (SEF90), during the different phases of anesthesia. Patients and method.
We evaluated the cognitive recovery profiles in elderly patients after general anesthesia with desflurane or sevoflurane. After IRB approval, 70 ASA physical status I-III consenting elderly patients (> or =65 yr old) undergoing total knee or hip replacement procedures were randomly assigned to one of two general anesthetic groups. Propofol and fentanyl were administered for induction of anesthesia, followed by either desflurane 2%-4% or sevoflurane 1%-1.5% with nitrous oxide 65% in oxygen. The desflurane (2.5 +/- 0.6 MAC. h) and sevoflurane (2.7 +/- 0.5 MAC.
BACKGROUND: Extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (AEP) by an auto regressive model with exogenous input (ARX) enables extraction of the AEP within 1.7 s. In this way, the depth of hypnosis can be monitored at almost real-time. However, the identification and the interpretation of the appropriate signals of the AEP could be difficult to perform during the anesthesia procedure. This problem was addressed by defining an index which reflected the peak amplitudes and latencies of the AEP, developed to improve the clinical interpretation of the AEP.