C57BL/6J mice carrying the Min allele of Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) develop numerous adenomas along the entire length of the intestine and consequently die at an early age. This short lifespan would prevent the accumulation of somatic genetic mutations or epigenetic alterations necessary for tumor progression. To overcome this limitation, we generated F(1) Apc(Min/+) hybrids by crossing C57BR/cdcJ and SWR/J females to C57BL/6J Apc(Min/+) males. These hybrids developed few intestinal tumors and often lived longer than 1 year.
Dietary restriction (DR) has been used for decades to retard aging in rodents, but its mechanism of action remains an enigma. A principal roadblock has been that DR affects many different processes, making it difficult to distinguish cause and effect. To address this problem, we applied a quantitative genetics approach utilizing the ILSXISS series of mouse recombinant inbred strains. Across 42 strains, mean female lifespan ranged from 380 to 1070days on DR (fed 60% of ad libitum [AL]) and from 490 to 1020days on an AL diet.
Discoveries of immunomodulatory functions in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have suggested that they might have therapeutic utility in treating immune diseases. Recently, a novel MSC population was identified from dental pulp of human supernumerary teeth, and its multipotency characterized. Herein, we first examined the in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory functions of human supernumerary tooth-derived stem cells (SNTSCs).
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Aging is the progressive accumulation of changes with time that are associated with or responsible for the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies advancing age. These time-related changes are attributed to the aging process. The nature of the aging process has been the subject of considerable speculation. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the sum of the deleterious free radical reactions going on continuously throughout the cells and tissues constitutes the aging process or is a major contributor to it.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease in which spinal cord motor neurons degenerate resulting in progressive paralysis. Some cases of ALS are caused by mutations in the antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD). Transgenic mice expressing ALS-linked Cu/Zn-SOD mutations (SODMutM) exhibit a phenotype analogous to that of human ALS patients. Dietary restriction (DR) is a well-established means of extending lifespan in rodents. It may act by reducing levels of cellular oxidative stress.
Although best known for his studies on the anti-aging effects of dietary restriction, Dr Roy Walford began his career by studying the anti-aging effects of lowering body temperature. As a tribute to his long and productive career, we review these pioneering studies and the singular influence these have had on our own thinking about the potential for lower body temperature to extend the life span of homeotherms. We show our results from a study of six classical inbred strains of mice that depict marked strain variation in the body temperature response to dietary restriction.
Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et MÈtabolisme
We examined the effects of diets based on a low isoflavone or a high isoflavone soy protein isolates in normal, growth-hormone receptor knockout and Ames dwarf, and Prop 1 (df) mice that are hypoinsulinemic, insulin-sensitive, and exceptionally long-lived, as well as in growth hormone transgenic mice that are hyperinsulinemic, insulin-resistant, dyslipidemic, and short-lived. Soybean diets tended to normalize plasma cholesterol levels in dwarf and transgenic mice, while low isoflavone diet reduced plasma triglycerides in most of the examined genotypes.
Diminished mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic capacity are associated with reduced longevity. We tested whether resveratrol (RSV), which is known to extend lifespan, impacts mitochondrial function and metabolic homeostasis. Treatment of mice with RSV significantly increased their aerobic capacity, as evidenced by their increased running time and consumption of oxygen in muscle fibers.