Aging is a complex process accompanied by a decreased capacity of cells to cope with random molecular damages. Damaged proteins can form aggregates and have cytotoxic properties, a feature of many age-associated diseases. Small Hsps are chaperones involved in the refolding and/or disposal of protein aggregates. In Drosophila melanogaster, the mitochondrial DmHsp22 is preferentially upregulated during aging. Its over-expression results in an extension of lifespan (>30%) and an increased resistance to stress.
In human cancers, telomeres are commonly maintained by elevated levels of the ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase, which contains an intrinsic templating RNA moiety (human telomerase RNA; hTER) and the core protein (human telomerase reverse transcriptase). We developed a lentiviral system for efficient overexpression of mutant-template human telomerase RNA (MT-hTer) to add mutant DNA to telomeres in cancer cells.
Epigenetic proteins have recently emerged as novel anticancer targets. Among these, bromodomain and extra terminal domain (BET) proteins recognize lysine-acetylated histones, thereby regulating gene expression. Newly described small molecules that inhibit BET proteins BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4 reduce proliferation of NUT (nuclear protein in testis)-midline carcinoma, multiple myeloma, and leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings prompted us to determine whether BET proteins may be therapeutic targets in the most common primary adult brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM).
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain proteins have emerged as promising therapeutic targets in glioblastoma and many other cancers. Small molecule inhibitors of BET bromodomain proteins reduce expression of several oncogenes required for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) progression. However, the mechanism through which BET protein inhibition reduces GBM growth is not completely understood.
The current study was aimed to evaluate Acacia modesta for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-platelet activities. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were assessed in rodents using acetic acid and formalin-induced nociception, hot plate and carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema tests. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the methanolic extract (50 and 100 mg/kg) produced significant inhibition (P\0.01) of the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and suppressed formalin-induced licking response of animals in both phases of the test.
Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
PURPOSE: ART and its derivatives, clinically used antimalarial agents, have recently shown antitumor activities. However, the mechanisms underlying these activities remain unclear. This study was designed to determine their antitumor efficacy and underlying mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The in vitro cytotoxicities of ART, DHA, artemether, and artesunate were compared in human hepatoma cells, HepG2 (p53 wild-type), Huh-7 and BEL-7404 (p53 mutant), and Hep3B (p53 null), and a normal human liver cell line, 7702.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Immune effector mechanisms can enhance the activity of antischistosomal drugs. We examined the in vivo effect of single oral doses of the antimalarials artemether (400 mg/kg) and mefloquine (200 mg/kg), recently described to have promising antischistosomal properties, against juvenile and adult Schistosoma mansoni in T cell-deficient and in comparably infected age- and sex-matched immunologically intact control mice. Artemether and mefloquine are equally effective in athymic and immunocompetent mice.
This paper aims to investigate the effects of artesunate (ART) on growth and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma HOS cell line in vitro and in vivo and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The induction of apoptosis was detected by light and transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to investigate the related mechanisms. Nude mice were further employed to investigate the antitumour activity of ART in vivo.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in industrialized countries. Systemic treatment of breast cancer is effective at the beginning of therapy. However, after a variable period of time, progression occurs due to therapy resistance. Artesunate, clinically used as anti-malarial agent, has recently revealed remarkable anti-tumor activity offering a role as novel candidate for cancer chemotherapy. We analyzed the anti-tumor effects of artesunate in metastasizing breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Liver cancer ranks in prevalence and mortality among top five cancers worldwide. Accumulating interests have been focused in developing new strategies for liver cancer treatment. We have previously showed that dihydroartemisinin (DHA) exhibited antitumor activity towards liver cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) significantly augmented the antineoplastic effect of DHA via increasing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.