A number of lines of evidence, including nonhuman primate and human studies, suggest that regulatory pathways similar to those invoked by caloric restriction (CR) may be involved in determining human longevity. Thus, pharmaceuticals capable of mimicking the molecular mechanisms of life- and health-span extension by CR (CR mimetics) may have application to human health. CR acts rapidly, even in late adulthood, to begin to extend life- and health-span in mice. We have linked these effects with rapid changes in the levels of specific gene transcripts in the liver and the heart.
The Candida albicans Goa1p is required for mitochondrial functions. In a strain lacking GOA1 (GOA31), respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, complex I (CI) activity of the electron transport chain, and ATP synthesis are significantly decreased. A shortened chronological life span (CLS) of GOA31 occurs in 2% glucose that is associated with an increase in cell reactive oxidant species (ROS) and apoptosis. We now show that caloric restriction (CR) in media containing 0.5% glucose instead of 2% glucose-SC extends the CLS to the level of parental and gene-reconstituted strains.
OBJECTIVE: The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) molecules represent a class of proteins that modulate the signaling activity of G-protein coupled receptors. Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) is of particular interest in schizophrenia due to reported downregulation of RGS4 transcripts in schizophrenia as well as a connection between RGS4 and a number of receptors implicated in schizophrenia. The mechanism of RGS4 involvement in the pathophysiology of this illness is not clear.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are important for coordinating nervous system development and neuronal function in the mature brain. We have recently identified schizophrenia-associated alteration of cortical miRNA biogenesis and expression in post-mortem brain tissue with implications for the dysregulation of schizophrenia candidate genes. Although these changes were observed in the central nervous system, it is plausible that schizophrenia-associated miRNA expression signatures may also be detected in non-neural tissue.
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibits numerous clinical and molecular features that are consistent with putative epigenetic misregulation. Despite growing interest in epigenetic studies of psychiatric diseases, the methodologies guiding such studies have not been well defined. METHODS: We performed DNA modification analysis in white blood cells from monozygotic twins discordant for MDD, in brain prefrontal cortex, and germline (sperm) samples from affected individuals and control subjects (total N = 304) using 8.1K CpG island microarrays and fine mapping.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Current perspectives on the molecular underpinnings of major depressive disorder (MDD) posit a mechanistic role of epigenetic DNA modifications in mediating the interaction between environmental risk factors and a genetic predisposition. However, conclusive evidence for differential methylation signatures in the brain's epigenome of MDD patients as compared to controls is still lacking.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals
The challenge of predicting the metabolism or toxicity of a drug in humans has been approached using in vivo animal models, in vitro systems, high throughput genomics and proteomics methods, and, more recently, computational approaches. Understanding the complexity of biological systems requires a broader perspective rather than focusing on just one method in isolation for prediction. Multiple methods may therefore be necessary and combined for a more accurate prediction.
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial drug resistance threatens to undermine efforts to eliminate this deadly disease. The resulting omnipresent requirement for drugs with novel modes of action prompted a national consortium initiative to discover new anti-plasmodial agents from South African medicinal plants. One of the plants selected for investigation was Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii, based on its ethnomedicinal profile.
The recent reports of artemisinin (ART) resistance in the Thai-Cambodian border area raise a serious concern on the long-term efficacy of ARTs. To elucidate the resistance mechanisms, we performed in vitro selection with dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and obtained two parasite clones from Dd2 with more than 25-fold decrease in susceptibility to DHA. The DHA-resistant clones were more tolerant of stressful growth conditions and more resistant to several commonly used antimalarial drugs than Dd2. The result is worrisome as many of the drugs are currently used as ART partners in malaria control.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The great similarity of the genomes of humans and other species stimulated us to search for genes regulated by elements associated with human uniqueness, such as the mind-body interaction. DNA microarray technology offers the advantage of analyzing thousands of genes simultaneously, with the potential to determine healthy phenotypic changes in gene expression. The aim of this study was to determine the genomic profile and function of neutrophils in Falun Gong (FLG, an ancient Chinese Qigong) practitioners, with healthy subjects as controls.