Sandalwood oil has been found in numerous therapeutic applications in traditional medicines such as Chinese traditional medicine and Ayurveda. However, there are no comparative accounts available in the literature that focused on in vitro and in vivo tree sample-derived extracts. Combined dichloromethane and methanol extracts were obtained from in vitro samples, that is, callus, somatic embryo and seedlings, and in vivo from leaves of non-oil-yielding young and oil-yielding matured trees.
Study of in vitro antibacterial activity of extracts from the plants T. chebula, E. alba and O. sanctum was carried out by the disk diffusion technique. All showed such activity against human pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The activity against Salmonella organisms was shown only by T. chebula; against Shigella organisms by T. chebula and E. alha; but not by O. sanctum. The widest spectrum of antibacterial activity was shown by T. chebula. It was also most potent. The antibacterial spectrum of E. alba was in between that of T. chebula and O. sanctum.
The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica was studied. In the traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It comprises of five medicinal herbs, namely, Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted in ethanol together and individually.
Examination of the EtOH extract of the fruiting bodies of Terminalia chebula RETZ. led to the isolation of two potent antimicrobial substances against even methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. On the basis of spectroscopic evidence, the two isolates have been identified as gallic acid and its ethyl ester.
A total of 82 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicines were subjected to preliminary antibacterial screening against several pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method at sample concentration of 200 mg/ml. The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more test pathogens.
Ethanolic extracts of 45 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicine were studied for their antimicrobial activity against certain drug-resistant bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plant extracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed in 12 plants (L. inermis, Eucalyptus sp., H. antidysentrica, H. indicus, C. equistifolia. T. belerica, T. chebula, E. officinalis, C. sinensis, S.
The effect of ether, alcoholic and water extracts of black myrobalan (Teminalia chebula Retz) on Helicobactor pylori were examined using an agar diffusion method on Columbia Agar. Water extracts of black myrobalan showed significant antibacterial activity and had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of 125 and 150 mg/l, respectively. The extract was active after autoclaving for 30 min at 121 degrees C. Plant powder (incorporated in agar) gave higher MIC and MBC values (150 and 175 mg/l, respectively).
The antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of Terminalis chebula Retz., Sanguisorba officinalis L., Rubus coreanus Miq. and Rheum palmatum L. were examined by a cell culture system using a hepatitis B virus (HBV) producing cell line, HepG2 2.2.15. The extracts were assayed for the inhibition of HBV multiplication by measurement of HBV DNA and surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in the extracellular medium of HepG2 2.2.15 cells after an 8-day treatment.
In this study, twenty-eight South Indian medicinal plants were screened for their anti-fungal activity against six species of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. soudanense, Candida albicans, Torulopsis glabrata, and C. krusei). Three plant species extracts, Celastrus paniculatus, Eriodendron anfractuosum and Ficus glomerata showed inhibitory activity. An aqueous extract of galls of Terminalia chebula showed inhibitory effects on three dermatophytes (Trichophyton spp.) and three yeasts (Candida spp.). Seeds extract of T. chebula inhibited only the growth of T. glabrata.