Microbiota

Publication Title: 
Bioengineered Bugs

That commensal bacteria play an important role in human health is beyond doubt, and it is now widely accepted that humans function as super organisms, whose collective metabolic potential exceeds the sum of our individual eukaryotic and prokaryotic components. However, while it is has been established that the prokaryotic component of the human superorganism is amenable to manipulation by chemotherapeutic, dietary or microbial interventions, the significance of such alterations in terms of human health or well being is less well established.

Author(s): 
Hill, Colin
Publication Title: 
Bioengineered Bugs

That commensal bacteria play an important role in human health is beyond doubt, and it is now widely accepted that humans function as super organisms, whose collective metabolic potential exceeds the sum of our individual eukaryotic and prokaryotic components. However, while it is has been established that the prokaryotic component of the human superorganism is amenable to manipulation by chemotherapeutic, dietary or microbial interventions, the significance of such alterations in terms of human health or well being is less well established.

Author(s): 
Hill, Colin
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

AIM: The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the therapeutic uses and efficacy of Triphala. Herbal remedies are among the most ancient medicines used in traditional systems of healthcare such as Ayurveda. Triphala, a well-recognized and highly efficacious polyherbal Ayurvedic medicine consisting of fruits of the plant species Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), Terminalia bellerica (Bibhitaki), and Terminalia chebula (Haritaki), is a cornerstone of gastrointestinal and rejuvenative treatment. METHODS: A search of the PubMed database was conducted.

Author(s): 
Peterson, Christine Tara
Denniston, Kate
Chopra, Deepak
Publication Title: 
Nature Chemical Biology

Gut microbiota is found in virtually any metazoan, from invertebrates to vertebrates. It has long been believed that gut microbiota, more specifically, the activity of the microbiome and its metabolic products, directly influence a variety of aspects in metazoan physiology. However, the exact molecular relationship among microbe-derived gut metabolites, host signaling pathways, and host physiology remains to be elucidated. Here we review recent discoveries regarding the molecular links between gut metabolites and host physiology in different invertebrate and vertebrate animal models.

Author(s): 
Lee, Won-Jae
Hase, Koji
Publication Title: 
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research

The Mediterranean diet and consumption of olive oil have been connected in several studies with longevity and a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle, such as regular physical activity, a healthy diet, and the existing social cohesion in Southern European countries have been recognised as candidate protective factors that may explain the Mediterranean Paradox. Along with some other characteristics of the Mediterranean diet, the use of olive oil as the main source of fat is common in Southern European countries.

Author(s): 
MartÌn-Pel·ez, Sandra
Covas, MarÌa Isabel
FitÛ, Montserrat
Kuöar, Anita
Pravst, Igor
Publication Title: 
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research

There are a multitude of antioxidants in foods, especially in foods of plant origin. Higher intake of antioxidant-rich foods is clearly associated with better health and functional longevity. The specific agents and mechanisms responsible are not yet clear, but there is convincing evidence that including more plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods, herbs, and beverages in the diet is effective in promoting health and lowering risk of various age-related diseases.

Author(s): 
Benzie, Iris F. F.
Choi, Siu-Wai
Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

The tight association of the human body with trillions of colonizing microbes that we observe today is the result of a long evolutionary history. Only very recently have we started to understand how this symbiosis also affects brain function and behavior. In this hypothesis and theory article, we propose how host-microbe associations potentially influenced mammalian brain evolution and development.

Author(s): 
Stilling, Roman M.
Bordenstein, Seth R.
Dinan, Timothy G.
Cryan, John F.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Therapeutics

PURPOSE: This article describes progress to date in the characterization of the salivary epigenome and considers the importance of previous work in the salivary microbiome, proteome, endocrine analytes, genome, and transcriptome. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were used to extensively search the existing literature (original research and reviews) related to salivary diagnostics and biomarker development, of which 125 studies were examined.

Author(s): 
Wren, Michael E.
Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.
Drury, Stacy S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Hepatology

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The 7α-dehydroxylation of primary bile acids (BAs), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA) into the secondary BAs, lithocholic (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), is a key function of the gut microbiota. We aimed at studying the linkage between fecal BAs and gut microbiota in cirrhosis since this could help understand cirrhosis progression. METHODS: Fecal microbiota were analyzed by culture-independent multitagged-pyrosequencing, fecal BAs using HPLC and serum BAs using LC-MS in controls, early (Child A) and advanced cirrhotics (Child B/C).

Author(s): 
Kakiyama, Genta
Pandak, William M.
Gillevet, Patrick M.
Hylemon, Phillip B.
Heuman, Douglas M.
Daita, Kalyani
Takei, Hajime
Muto, Akina
Nittono, Hiroshi
Ridlon, Jason M.
White, Melanie B.
Noble, Nicole A.
Monteith, Pamela
Fuchs, Michael
Thacker, Leroy R.
Sikaroodi, Masoumeh
Bajaj, Jasmohan S.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Biotechnology

The human microbiome represents a vastly complex ecosystem that is tightly linked to our development, physiology, and health. Our increased capacity to generate multiple channels of omic data from this system, brought about by recent advances in high throughput molecular technologies, calls for the development of systems-level methods and models that take into account not only the composition of genes and species in a microbiome but also the interactions between these components.

Author(s): 
Greenblum, Sharon
Chiu, Hsuan-Chao
Levy, Roie
Carr, Rogan
Borenstein, Elhanan

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