Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
We transformed the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila by microinjection of circular plasmids containing the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). In the somatic macronucleus of Tetrahymena, the rDNA is in the form of linear palindromic molecules. The rDNA molecules from the C3 strain have a replication advantage over rDNA from both B strain and the C3 rDNA mutant rmm1. We constructed two circular plasmids carrying replication origin sequences from C3 rDNA and a point mutation (Pmr) in the 17S rRNA gene that confers resistance to the antibiotic paromomycin.
We previously found that the center from which animal hypnosis is controlled in the rabbit is located in the area that includes the brachium conjunctivum and locus coeruleus (LC-BC) of the brainstem. Microinjection was used to investigate functions of cholinergic fibers in this area in relation to animal hypnosis. The duration of animal hypnosis (DAH) induced by inversion was diminished to about 60% of the controls by microinjecting atropine into the LC-BC, whereas microinjection of carbachol prolonged the DAH to 3.5 times that of the controls.
We previously found that the center of animal hypnosis production in the rabbit is located around the locus ceruleus and brachium conjunctivum (LC-BC) of the brainstem. The involvement of serotonergic neurons in this area of animal hypnosis was investigated by microinjection of serotonin into these regions. The duration of animal hypnosis (DAH) induced by inversion was diminished to about 65% of the controls by serotonin microinjection into the LC-BC and microinjection of methysergide prolonged the DAH to 3.2 times that of the controls.
Tonic immobility (TI), also known as death feigning or animal hypnosis, is a reversible state of motor inhibition that is triggered by postural inversion and/or movement restraining maneuvers but also by repetitive stimulation and pressure on body parts. Our previous studies demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation of the central amygdala (CEA) decreases the duration of TI in guinea pigs. Some reports have demonstrated that electrical or chemical stimulation of the CEA promotes antinociception.
Tonic immobility (TI), also known as death feigning or animal hypnosis, is a reversible state of motor inhibition that is not only triggered by postural inversion and/or movement restraining maneuvers but also by repetitive stimulation and pressure on body parts. Evidence has demonstrated that the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is particularly associated with defensive behavior that involves the emotional states of fear and anxiety.
Tonic immobility (TI) is also known as "immobility response", "immobility reflex", "animal hypnosis", etc. It is an innate antipredatory behavior characterized by an absence of movement, varying degrees of muscular activity, and a relative unresponsiveness to external stimuli. Experimentally, TI is commonly produced by manually forcing an animal into an inverted position and restraining it in that position until the animal becomes immobile.
One desirable endpoint of general anesthesia is the state of unconsciousness, also known as hypnosis. Defining the hypnotic state in animals is less straightforward than it is in human patients. A widely used behavioral surrogate for hypnosis in rodents is the loss of righting reflex (LORR), or the point at which the animal no longer responds to their innate instinct to avoid the vulnerability of dorsal recumbency.
To investigate the kinetics of both the potentiation and desensitization of the response of ionotropic GABA receptors (GABA(A) receptors) in the presence of various compounds, we expressed receptors composed of alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits by injecting cells with the cRNAs synthesized from cloned bovine GABA(A) receptor cDNAs and measured the electrical responses of the cells electrophysiologically with or without the compounds.
The purpose of these studies was to determine the role of gracile nucleus and the effects of l-arginine-derived nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the nucleus on the cardiovascular responses to electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Zusanli" (ST36). Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored during EA stimulation of ST36 following microinjections of agents into gracile nucleus. EA ST36 produced depressor and bradycardiac responses in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats.
C. elegans and D. rerio expressing mutant TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) are powerful in vivo animal models for the genetics and pharmacology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using these small-animal models of ALS, we previously identified methylene blue (MB) as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 toxicity. Consequently here we investigated how MB might exert its neuroprotective properties and found that it acts through reduction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response.