Micronutrients

Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Deficiencies of the vitamins B12, B6, C, E, folate, or niacin, or of iron or zinc mimic radiation in damaging DNA by causing single- and double-strand breaks, oxidative lesions, or both. The percentage of the population of the United States that has a low intake (< 50% of the RDA) for each of these eight micronutrients ranges from 2% to 20+ percent. A level of folate deficiency causing chromosome breaks occurred in approximately 10% of the population of the United States, and in a much higher percentage of the poor.

Author(s): 
Ames, B. N.
Publication Title: 
Toxicology

Cigarette smoke is a significant source of oxidative stress, one potential mechanism for its untoward health effects. The antioxidant defense system is partly comprised of antioxidant micronutrients, making it important to understand the relationship between cigarette smoking and circulating concentrations of antioxidant micronutrients. A synthesis of the literature shows that compared with nonsmokers, on average, active smokers have greater than 25% lower circulating concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and cryptoxanthin.

Author(s): 
Alberg, Anthony
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological Research: The Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society

Diet, along with genetic and environmental factors, is considered a major aspect affecting longevity as well as vascular disease outcome. Yet, inadequate nutritional intake is rampant among the elderly, affecting nearly 44% of otherwise healthy, community-dwellers in developed countries. Thus, malnutrition, both in quali- and quantitative terms and especially as related to micronutrient intake, may exacerbate intrinsic cardiovascular maladaptation associated with aging, affecting vascular disease outcomes as well as longevity.

Author(s): 
Visioli, Francesco
Hagen, Tory M.
Publication Title: 
Nutrition and Health

What the World needs is an integrated and sustainable food policy that makes the best and most appropriate use of the technologies at our disposal to promote health and help prevent disease. Diet induced diseases account for the largest burden of chronic illnesses and health problems Worldwide. Historically a lack of knowledge about human nutritional requirements (including for the brain) helped promote diet induced disease. The scientific knowledge currently exists to help prevent many of the current deficiencies and imbalances in human diet.

Author(s): 
Robson, Anthony A.
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

In ageing, alterations in inflammatory/immune response and antioxidant capacity lead to increased susceptibility to diseases and loss of mobility and agility. Various essential micronutrients in the diet are involved in age-altered biological functions. Micronutrients (zinc, copper, iron) play a pivotal role either in maintaining and reinforcing the immune and antioxidant performances or in affecting the complex network of genes (nutrigenomic approach) involved in encoding proteins for a correct inflammatory/immune response.

Author(s): 
Mocchegiani, Eugenio
Costarelli, Laura
Giacconi, Robertina
Piacenza, Francesco
Basso, Andrea
Malavolta, Marco
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Diet can affect a spectrum of biological processes ranging from behavior to cellular metabolism. Yet, the precise role of an individual dietary constituent can be a difficult variable to isolate experimentally. A chemically defined food (CDF) permits the systematic evaluation of individual macro- and micronutrients. In addition, CDF facilitates the direct comparison of data obtained independently from different laboratories. Here, we report the development and characterization of a CDF for Drosophila.

Author(s): 
Lee, Wen-Chih
Micchelli, Craig A.
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Bulletin

Converging evidence suggests that a neurodevelopmental disruption plays a role in the vulnerability to schizophrenia. The authors review evidence supporting in utero exposure to nutritional deficiency as a determinant of schizophrenia. We first describe studies demonstrating that early gestational exposure to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944--1945 and to a severe famine in China are each associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring.

Author(s): 
Brown, Alan S.
Susser, Ezra S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine: The Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians

Preterm pregnancies account for approximately 10% of the total pregnancies and are associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Recent studies have shown that LBW babies are at an increased risk of developing brain disorders such as cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (folic acid, vitamin B(12), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) have a major role during pregnancy for developing fetus and are important determinants of epigenesis.

Author(s): 
Dhobale, Madhavi
Joshi, Sadhana
Publication Title: 
PLoS medicine

BACKGROUND: It is uncertain to what extent oral supplementation with zinc can reduce episodes of malaria in endemic areas. Protection may depend on other nutrients. We measured the effect of supplementation with zinc and other nutrients on malaria rates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a 2×2 factorial trial, 612 rural Tanzanian children aged 6-60 months in an area with intense malaria transmission and with height-for-age z-score?-1.5 SD were randomized to receive daily oral supplementation with either zinc alone (10 mg), multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo.

Author(s): 
Veenemans, Jacobien
Milligan, Paul
Prentice, Andrew M.
Schouten, Laura R. A.
Inja, Nienke
van der Heijden, Aafke C.
de Boer, Linsey C. C.
Jansen, Esther J. S.
Koopmans, Anna E.
Enthoven, Wendy T. M.
Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.
Demir, Ayse Y.
Uges, Donald R. A.
Mbugi, Erasto V.
Savelkoul, Huub F. J.
Verhoef, Hans
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: Anemia is a serious health problem in Indian school children. High prevalence of anemia has been reported in nonpregnant adolescent girls. An investigation was initiated to study the effect of two non-iron-containing Ayurvedic preparations-Sootshekhar Rasa plus Sitopaladi Churna-in improving nutritional anemia among adolescent students. DESIGN: This was a single-blinded, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: The study setting was Dehradun district, North India.

Author(s): 
Prakash, Vaidya Balendu
Prakash, Shyam
Sharma, Rajesh
Pal, Sanjoy K.

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