MicroRNAs

Publication Title: 
BMC genomics

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and play a critical role in development, homeostasis, and disease. Despite their demonstrated roles in age-associated pathologies, little is known about the role of miRNAs in human aging and longevity. RESULTS: We employed massively parallel sequencing technology to identify miRNAs expressed in B-cells from Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians, i.e., those living to a hundred and a human model of exceptional longevity, and younger controls without a family history of longevity.

Author(s): 
Gombar, Saurabh
Jung, Hwa Jin
Dong, Feng
Calder, Brent
Atzmon, Gil
Barzilai, Nir
Tian, Xiao-Li
Pothof, Joris
Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.
Campisi, Judith
Vijg, Jan
Suh, Yousin
Publication Title: 
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)

Caloric restriction has been shown to increase lifespan in several organisms and to delay onset of age-related diseases. The transcriptional response to caloric restriction has been studied for mRNAs, while the microRNA signature following caloric restriction remains unexplored. Here, we characterize the microRNA expression in mouse breast tissue before and after caloric restriction, reporting several changes in the microRNA expression profile.

Author(s): 
ÿrom, Ulf Andersson
Lim, Meng K.
Savage, Jason E.
Jin, Lianjin
Saleh, Anthony D.
Lisanti, Michael P.
Simone, Nicole L.
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

MicroRNAs, a class of small, non-coding RNAs, are now widely known for their importance in many aspects of biology. These small regulatory RNAs have critical functions in diverse biological events, including development and disease. Recent findings show that microRNAs are essential for lifespan determination in the model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, suggesting that microRNAs are also involved in the complex process of ageing.

Author(s): 
Kato, Masaomi
Slack, Frank J.
Publication Title: 
BMC genomics

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and play a critical role in development, homeostasis, and disease. Despite their demonstrated roles in age-associated pathologies, little is known about the role of miRNAs in human aging and longevity. RESULTS: We employed massively parallel sequencing technology to identify miRNAs expressed in B-cells from Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians, i.e., those living to a hundred and a human model of exceptional longevity, and younger controls without a family history of longevity.

Author(s): 
Gombar, Saurabh
Jung, Hwa Jin
Dong, Feng
Calder, Brent
Atzmon, Gil
Barzilai, Nir
Tian, Xiao-Li
Pothof, Joris
Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.
Campisi, Judith
Vijg, Jan
Suh, Yousin
Publication Title: 
Molecular Aspects of Medicine

While the eukaryotic genome is the same throughout all somatic cells in an organism, there are specific structures and functions that discern one type of cell from another. These differences are due to the cell's unique gene expression patterns that are determined during cellular differentiation. Interestingly, these cell-specific gene expression patterns can be affected by an organism's environment throughout its lifetime leading to phenotypical changes that have the potential of altering risk of some diseases.

Author(s): 
Tammen, Stephanie A.
Friso, Simonetta
Choi, Sang-Woon
Publication Title: 
Cell Metabolism

Excess adipose tissue is associated with metabolic disease and reduced life span, whereas caloric restriction decreases these risks. Here we show that as mice age, there is downregulation of Dicer and miRNA processing in adipose tissue resulting in decreases of multiple miRNAs. A similar decline of Dicer with age is observed in C.†elegans. This is prevented in both species by caloric restriction. Decreased Dicer expression also occurs in preadipocytes from elderly humans and can be produced in cells by exposure to oxidative stress or UV radiation.

Author(s): 
Mori, Marcelo A.
Raghavan, Prashant
Thomou, Thomas
Boucher, Jeremie
Robida-Stubbs, Stacey
Macotela, Yazmin
Russell, Steven J.
Kirkland, James L.
Blackwell, T. Keith
Kahn, C. Ronald
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter, which is phylogenetically conserved in a wide range of species from nematodes to humans. In mammals, age-related changes in serotonin systems are known risk factors of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, faecal incontinence and cardiovascular diseases. A decline in serotonin function with aging would be consistent with observations of age-related changes in behaviours, such as sleep, sexual behaviour and mood all of which are linked to serotonergic function. Despite this little is known about serotonin in relation to aging.

Author(s): 
Fidalgo, Sara
Ivanov, Dobril K.
Wood, Shona H.
Publication Title: 
Scientific Reports

Centenarians exhibit extreme longevity and a remarkable compression of morbidity. They have a unique capacity to maintain homeostatic mechanisms. Since small non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of gene expression, we hypothesised that longevity of centenarians may reflect alterations in small non-coding RNA expression. We report the first comparison of microRNAs expression profiles in mononuclear cells from centenarians, octogenarians and young individuals resident near Valencia, Spain.

Author(s): 
Serna, Eva
Gambini, Juan
Borras, Consuelo
Abdelaziz, Kheira M.
Mohammed, Kheira
Belenguer, Angel
Sanchis, Paula
Avellana, Juan A.
Rodriguez-MaÒas, Leocadio
ViÒa, Jose
Publication Title: 
PLoS pathogens

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. First described as posttranscriptional gene regulators in eukaryotic hosts, virus-encoded miRNAs were later uncovered. It is now apparent that diverse virus families, most with DNA genomes, but at least some with RNA genomes, encode miRNAs. While deciphering the functions of viral miRNAs has lagged behind their discovery, recent functional studies are bringing into focus these roles.

Author(s): 
Kincaid, Rodney P.
Sullivan, Christopher S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Tumors use a wide array of immunosuppressive strategies, such as reducing the longevity and survival of dendritic cells (DCs), to diminish immune responses and limit the effect of immunotherapy. In this study, we found that tumors upregulate the expression of multiple microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-16-1, miR-22, miR-155, and miR-503. These tumor-associated miRNAs influenced the survival and longevity of DCs by affecting the expression of multiple molecules that are associated with apoptotic signaling pathways.

Author(s): 
Min, Siping
Liang, Xue
Zhang, Miaomiao
Zhang, Yuan
Mei, Shiyue
Liu, Jinzhe
Liu, Jingyi
Su, Xiaomin
Cao, Shuisong
Zhong, Xueqing
Li, Yueming
Sun, Jiatan
Liu, Qiaofei
Jiang, Xingran
Che, Yongzhe
Yang, Rongcun

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