Microscopy

Publication Title: 
Acta Cytologica

ISSUES: Optical digital imaging and its related technologies have applications in cytopathology that encompass training and education, image analysis, diagnosis, report documentation and archiving, and telecommunications. Telecytology involves the use of telecommunications to transmit cytology images for the purposes of diagnosis, consultation or education.

Author(s): 
O'Brien, M. J.
Takahashi, M.
Brugal, G.
Christen, H.
Gahm, T.
Goodell, R. M.
Karakitsos, P.
Knesel, E. A.
Kobler, T.
Kyrkou, K. A.
Labbe, S.
Long, E. L.
Mango, L. J.
McGoogan, E.
Oberholzer, M.
Reith, A.
Winkler, C.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: There is a need for improved targeting of antimalarial treatment if artemisinin combination therapy is to be successfully introduced in Africa. This study aimed to explore why malaria slides are requested and how their results guide treatment decisions in an area of low transmission of P. falciparum. METHODS: Outpatients attending a district hospital in a highland area of Tanzania were studied over a 3-week period. Clinical and social data were collected from patients who had been prescribed an antimalarial or sent for a malaria slide.

Author(s): 
Reyburn, Hugh
Ruanda, John
Mwerinde, Ombeni
Drakeley, Chris
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: A recent observational study undertaken at 17 health facilities with microscopy in Kenya revealed that potential benefits of malaria microscopy are not realized because of irrational clinical practices and the low accuracy of routine microscopy. Using these data, we modelled financial and clinical implications of revised clinical practices and improved accuracy of malaria microscopy among adult outpatients under the artemether-lumefantrine (AL) treatment policy for uncomplicated malaria in Kenya.

Author(s): 
Zurovac, D.
Larson, B. A.
Akhwale, W.
Snow, R. W.
Publication Title: 
BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

OBJECTIVE: To compare rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria with routine microscopy in guiding treatment decisions for febrile patients. DESIGN: Randomised trial. SETTING: Outpatient departments in northeast Tanzania at varying levels of malaria transmission. PARTICIPANTS: 2416 patients for whom a malaria test was requested. INTERVENTION: Staff received training on rapid diagnostic tests; patients sent for malaria tests were randomised to rapid diagnostic test or routine microscopy MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of patients with a negative test prescribed an antimalarial drug.

Author(s): 
Reyburn, Hugh
Mbakilwa, Hilda
Mwangi, Rose
Mwerinde, Ombeni
Olomi, Raimos
Drakeley, Chris
Whitty, Christopher J. M.
Publication Title: 
JAMA

CONTEXT: Improving the accuracy of malaria diagnosis with rapid antigen-detection diagnostic tests (RDTs) has been proposed as an approach for reducing overtreatment of malaria in the current era of widespread implementation of artemisinin-based combination therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between use of microscopy and RDT and the prescription of antimalarials.

Author(s): 
Hamer, Davidson H.
Ndhlovu, Micky
Zurovac, Dejan
Fox, Matthew
Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo
Chanda, Pascalina
Sipilinyambe, Naawa
Simon, Jonathon L.
Snow, Robert W.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy in sub-Saharan Africa has prompted calls for increased use of parasitologic diagnosis for malaria. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in comparison to microscopy in guiding treatment of non-severe febrile illness at varying levels of malaria endemicity using data on test accuracy and costs collected as part of a Tanzanian trial.

Author(s): 
Lubell, Yoel
Reyburn, Hugh
Mbakilwa, Hilda
Mwangi, Rose
Chonya, Kini
Whitty, Christopher J. M.
Mills, Anne
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) at the community level has been advocated as a means to increase access to effective antimalarial medicines by high risk groups living in underserved areas, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. This strategy has been shown to be feasible and acceptable to the community. However, the parasitological effectiveness of ACT when dispensed by community medicine distributors (CMDs) within the context of home management of malaria (HMM) and used unsupervised by caregivers at home has not been evaluated.

Author(s): 
Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O.
Browne, Edmund N.
Bateganya, Fred
Yar, Denis
Happi, Christian
Falade, Catherine O.
Gbotosho, Grace O.
Yusuf, Bidemi
Boateng, Samuel
Mugittu, Kefas
Cousens, Simon
Nanyunja, Miriam
Pagnoni, Franco
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The accuracy of malaria diagnosis has received renewed interest in recent years due to changes in treatment policies in favour of relatively high-cost artemisinin-based combination therapies. The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) synthesized by Plasmodium falciparum has been widely advocated to save costs and to minimize inappropriate treatment of non-malarial febrile illnesses.

Author(s): 
Abeku, Tarekegn A.
Kristan, Mojca
Jones, Caroline
Beard, James
Mueller, Dirk H.
Okia, Michael
Rapuoda, Beth
Greenwood, Brian
Cox, Jonathan
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Many countries have implemented artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the first-line treatment of malaria. Although many studies have been performed on efficacy and tolerability of the combination arthemeter-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), less is known of the effect of these drugs on gametocyte development, which is an important issue in malaria control. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this two-arm randomized controlled trial, 146 children were treated with either AL or DP.

Author(s): 
Mens, Petra F.
Sawa, Patrick
van Amsterdam, Sandra M.
Versteeg, Inge
Omar, Sabah A.
Schallig, Henk D. F. H.
Kager, Piet A.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: An assessment of the accuracy of two malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) or Pf lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) was undertaken in children aged between six and 59 months included in an anti-malarial efficacy study in Benin. METHODS: In Allada (Benin), 205 children aged 6-59 months with falciparum malaria received either artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), artemether-lumefantrine (AL), or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP).

Author(s): 
Houzé, Sandrine
Boly, Mainoumata Dicko
Le Bras, Jacques
Deloron, Philippe
Faucher, Jean-François

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