Human milk has the lowest concentration of protein of any mammalian species. Since the rate of growth of the offspring is negatively related to the protein content of the milk, the time required to double the birth weight is greater in the infant than in any other mammal in which it has been measured. Similarly, in weaned animals, a low protein diet increases the time required to reach maximal growth, senescence and natural death. Human milk protein has the highest whey protein to casein ratio than the milk of any other mammalian species.
BACKGROUND: Milk supply concern is the most common reason given by mothers for discontinuing breastfeeding. OBJECTIVES. To describe maternal experiences of interactions with health care providers related to milk supply. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten focus groups (N = 56 participants) were conducted among mothers who had had milk supply concern in the first month after birth. Group sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed to identify themes. Results.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of donation behavior and identify reasons, beliefs and feelings relative to this practice, based on the reports of donor women. Personal and social-environmental aspects, which seem to affect donation behavior in donors and former donors, were also investigated. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with women donors at two breast-milk banks within the public health system of the Brazilian Federal District. Data was collected from July to September 2005.
The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to differ with respect to antimicrobial production, biofilm formation, and immunomodulation.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
OBJECTIVES: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant component of breast milk. Our laboratory has previously revealed gene clusters specifically linked to HMO metabolism in selected bifidobacteria isolated from fecal samples of infants. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that growth of selected bifidobacteria on HMO stimulates the intestinal epithelium. METHODS: Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were incubated with lactose (LAC)- or HMO-grown Bifidobacterium longum subsp infantis (B infantis) or B bifidum.
Breastfeeding Medicine: The Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid important for neonatal neurodevelopment and immune homeostasis. Preterm infants fed donor milk from a Midwestern source receive only 20% of the intrauterine accretion of DHA. We tested the hypothesis that DHA supplementation of donor mothers would provide preterm infants with DHA intake equivalent to fetal accretion.
Bifidobacteria are commonly used as probiotics in dairy foods. Select bifidobacterial species are also early colonizers of the breast-fed infant colon; however, the mechanism for this enrichment is unclear. We previously showed that Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis is a prototypical bifidobacterial species that can readily utilize human milk oligosaccharides as the sole carbon source. MS-based glycoprofiling has revealed that numerous B. infantis strains preferentially consume small mass oligosaccharides, abundant in human milks. Genome sequencing revealed that B.
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 mo after birth. However, the time at which breast milk ceases to provide adequate energy and nutrition, requiring the introduction of complementary foods, remains unclear. Most studies that investigated this issue were observational and potentially confounded by variability in social circumstances or infant growth. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that EBF infants would consume more breast milk at age 6 mo than infants receiving breast milk and complementary foods.
In the emergence of diverse animal life forms, food is the most insistent and pervasive of environmental pressures. As the life sciences begin to understand organisms in genomic detail, evolutionary perspectives provide compelling insights into the results of these dynamic interactions between food and consumer. Such an evolutionary perspective is particularly needed today in the face of unprecedented capabilities to alter the food supply. What should we change?
Breastfeeding is one of the main factors guiding the composition of the infant gut microbiota in the first months of life. This process is shaped in part by the high amounts of human milk oligosaccharides that serve as a carbon source for saccharolytic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium species. Infant-borne bifidobacteria have developed various molecular strategies for utilizing these oligosaccharides as a carbon source. We hypothesized that these species also interact with N-glycans found in host glycoproteins that are structurally similar to free oligosaccharides in human milk.