Mitochondria

Publication Title: 
Redox Biology

Liver failure induced by systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) is often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction but the mechanism linking SIRS and mitochondria-mediated liver failure is still a matter of discussion. Current hypotheses suggest that causative events could be a drop in ATP synthesis, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, specific changes in mitochondrial morphology, impaired Ca(2+) uptake, generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS), turnover of mitochondria and imbalance in electron supply to the respiratory chain.

Author(s): 
Kozlov, Andrey V.
Lancaster, Jack R.
Meszaros, Andras T.
Weidinger, Adelheid
Publication Title: 
Folia Biologica

Positive evolutionary pressure has apparently preserved the ability to synthesize chemically authentic morphine, albeit in homeopathic concentrations, throughout animal phyla.

Author(s): 
Stefano, G. B.
Ptá?ek, R.
Kuželová, H.
Kream, R. M.
Publication Title: 
Cell Biochemistry and Function

We evaluated the preventive effects of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract on oxidative and antioxidative status in liver and kidney of aged rats compared to young albino rats. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin (LF), protein carbonyls (PCO), activities of xantione oxidase (XO), manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), levels of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E were used as biomarkers.

Author(s): 
Mahesh, Ramalingam
Bhuvana, Shanmugham
Begum, Vava Mohaideen Hazeena
Publication Title: 
IUBMB life

In Roman mythology, Janus was the god of gates, doors, beginnings and endings. He was usually depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions. Janus was frequently used to symbolize change and transitions, such as the progression from past to future or from one viewpoint to another. 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and other nitrophenols have long been known to be toxic at high concentrations (the 'bad' face of DNP), an effect that appears essentially related to interference with cellular energy metabolism due to uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

Author(s): 
De Felice, Fernanda G.
Ferreira, SÈrgio T.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs (London, England: 2000)

SIRT1 (sirtuin 1) is the human ortholog of the yeast Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) protein, which is implicated in lifespan extension in model organisms, such as yeast, worms and flies. It is an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase with over two dozen known substrates that affect a wide variety of cellular processes, ranging from metabolism, cell cycle, growth and differentiation, inflammation, senescence, apoptosis, stress response and aging.

Author(s): 
Ghosh, Hiyaa Singhee
Publication Title: 
PloS One

In previous investigations an impact of cellular copper homeostasis on ageing of the ascomycete Podospora anserina has been demonstrated. Here we provide new data indicating that mitochondria play a major role in this process. Determination of copper in the cytosolic fraction using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis and eGfp reporter gene studies indicate an age-related increase of cytosolic copper levels. We show that components of the mitochondrial matrix (i.e. eGFP targeted to mitochondria) become released from the organelle during ageing.

Author(s): 
Scheckhuber, Christian Q.
Grief, J¸rgen
Boilan, Emmanuelle
Luce, Karin
Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence
Rittmeyer, Claudia
Gredilla, Ricardo
Kolbesen, Bernd O.
Toussaint, Olivier
Osiewacz, Heinz D.
Publication Title: 
Rejuvenation Research

A botanical extract (Regrapex-R) prepared from whole grape (Vitis vinifera) and Polygonum cuspidatum, which contains polyphenols, including flavans, anthocyanins, emodin, and resveratrol, exhibited dose-dependent scavenging effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS). The extract inhibited increases of ROS and protein carbonyl in isolated rat liver mitochondria following exposure to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidino propane) dihydrocholoride (AAPH), a potent lipid oxidant generator.

Author(s): 
Long, Jiangang
Gao, Hongxiang
Sun, Lijuan
Liu, Jiankang
Zhao-Wilson, Xi
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

Ageing can be defined as "a progressive, generalized impairment of function, resulting in an increased vulnerability to environmental challenge and a growing risk of disease and death". Ageing is likely a multifactorial process caused by accumulated damage to a variety of cellular components. During the last 20 years, gerontological studies have revealed different molecular pathways involved in the ageing process and pointed out mitochondria as one of the key regulators of longevity.

Author(s): 
Bratic, Ivana
Trifunovic, Aleksandra
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

As in the case of aging, many degenerative disorders also result from progressive mitochondrial deterioration and cellular damage accumulation. Therefore, preventing damage accumulation may delay aging and help to prevent degenerative disorders, especially those associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans a mild mitochondrial dysfunction prolongs the lifespan.

Author(s): 
Torgovnick, Alessandro
Schiavi, Alfonso
Testi, Roberto
Ventura, Natascia
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

The quest to understand why we age has given rise to numerous lines of investigation that have gradually converged to include metabolic control by mitochondrial activity as a major player. That is, the ideal balance between nutrient uptake, its transduction into usable energy, and the mitigation of damaging byproducts can be regulated by mitochondrial respiration and output (ATP, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and heat). Mitochondrial inefficiency through proton leak, which uncouples substrate oxidation from ADP phosphorylation, can comprise as much as 30% of the basal metabolic rate.

Author(s): 
Mookerjee, Shona A.
Divakaruni, Ajit S.
Jastroch, Martin
Brand, Martin D.

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