Mitochondria, Heart

Publication Title: 
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology

Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to increased workload, such as hypertension or valvular heart disease. Oxidative stress has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and in its transition to heart failure. This study was taken up with the objective to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in cardiomyoblast hypertrophy and its modulation by Desmodium gangeticum (DG) that has been traditionally used in Ayurveda, an Indian system of medicine. The methanolic root extract was analyzed for total phenolic content and tested for antioxidant potential.

Author(s): 
Sankar, Vandana
Pangayarselvi, Balasubramaniam
Prathapan, Ayyappan
Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Flavonoids within Scutellaria baicalensis may be potent antioxidants on the basis of our studies of S. baicalensis extract. To further this work, we studied the antioxidative effects of baicalein, a flavonoid component of S. baicalensis, in a chick cardiomyocyte model of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during hypoxia, simulated ischemia-reperfusion, or mitochondrial complex III inhibition with antimycin A. Oxidant stress was measured by oxidation of the intracellular probes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and dihydroethidium.

Author(s): 
Shao, Zuo-Hui
Vanden Hoek, Terry L.
Qin, Yimin
Becker, Lance B.
Schumacker, Paul T.
Li, Chang-Qing
Dey, Lucy
Barth, Eugene
Halpern, Howard
Rosen, Gerald M.
Yuan, Chun-Su
Publication Title: 
Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology

Thymidylate kinase (TMPK) is a nucleoside monophosphate kinase that catalyzes phosphorylation of thymidine monophosphate to thymidine diphosphate. TMPK also mediates phosphorylation of monophosphates of thymidine nucleoside analog (NA) prodrugs on the pathway to their active triphosphate antiviral or antitumor moieties. Novel transgenic mice (TG) expressing human (h) TMPK were genetically engineered using the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter to drive its cardiac-targeted overexpression.

Author(s): 
Kohler, James J.
Hosseini, Seyed H.
Cucoranu, Ioan
Zhelyabovska, Olga
Green, Elgin
Ivey, Kristopher
Abuin, Allison
Fields, Earl
Hoying, Amy
Russ, Rodney
Santoianni, Robert
Raper, C. Michael
Yang, Qinglin
Lavie, Arnon
Lewis, William
Publication Title: 
Circulation Research

RATIONALE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) (alpha, gamma, and delta/beta) are nuclear hormone receptors and ligand-activated transcription factors that serve as key determinants of myocardial fatty acid metabolism. Long-term cardiomyocyte-restricted PPARdelta deficiency in mice leads to depressed myocardial fatty acid oxidation, bioenergetics, and premature death with lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. OBJECTIVE: To explore the essential role of PPARdelta in the adult heart.

Author(s): 
Wang, Peiyong
Liu, Jian
Li, Yuquan
Wu, Sijie
Luo, Jinwen
Yang, Huan
Subbiah, Ramasamy
Chatham, John
Zhelyabovska, Olga
Yang, Qinglin
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a promising cardioprotective treatment for cardiac arrest and acute myocardial infarction, but its cytoprotective mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we developed a murine cardiomyocyte model of ischemia-reperfusion injury to better determine the mechanisms of TH cardioprotection. We hypothesized that TH manipulates Akt, a survival kinase that mediates mitochondrial protection by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation.

Author(s): 
Shao, Zuo-Hui
Sharp, Willard W.
Wojcik, Kimberly R.
Li, Chang-Qing
Han, Mei
Chang, Wei-Tien
Ramachandran, Srinivasan
Li, Jing
Hamann, Kimm J.
Vanden Hoek, Terry L.
Publication Title: 
Hypertension

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) is an essential transcription factor in myocardial metabolism. This study aims to investigate the effects of PPARβ/δ activation in the adult heart on mitochondrial biology and oxidative metabolism under normal and pressure-overload conditions. We have investigated the effects of cardiac constitutively active PPARβ/δ in adult mice using a tamoxifen-inducible transgenic approach with Cre-LoxP recombination. The expression of PPARβ/δ mRNA and protein in cardiomyocytes of adult mice was substantially increased after short-term induction.

Author(s): 
Liu, Jian
Wang, Peiyong
Luo, Jinwen
Huang, Yao
He, Lan
Yang, Huan
Li, Qingbao
Wu, Sijie
Zhelyabovska, Olga
Yang, Qinglin
Publication Title: 
The Biochemical Journal

Diets replete with n-3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) are known to have therapeutic potential for the heart, although a specifically defined duration of the n-3 PUFA diet required to achieve these effects remains unknown, as does their mechanism of action. The present study was undertaken to establish whether adaptations in mitochondrial function and stress tolerance in the heart is evident following short- (3 weeks) and long- (14 weeks) term dietary intervention of n-3 PUFAs, and to identify novel mechanisms by which these adaptations occur.

Author(s): 
Anderson, Ethan J.
Thayne, Kathleen
Harris, Mitchel
Carraway, Kristen
Shaikh, Saame Raza
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

The aging heart displays a loss of bioenergetic reserve capacity partially mediated through lower fatty acid utilization. We investigated whether the age-related impairment of cardiac fatty acid catabolism occurs, at least partially, through diminished levels of L-carnitine, which would adversely affect carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acyl-CoA uptake into mitochondria for β-oxidation.

Author(s): 
Gómez, Luis A.
Heath, Shi-Hua D.
Hagen, Tory M.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Glycemic regulation improves myocardial function in diabetic patients, but finding optimal therapeutic strategies remains challenging. Recent data have shown that pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme that decreases the endogenous levels of protective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), improves glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant mice. Here, we tested whether the administration of sEH inhibitors preserves cardiac myocyte structure and function in hyperglycemic rats.

Author(s): 
Guglielmino, Kathleen
Jackson, Kaleena
Harris, Todd R.
Vu, Vincent
Dong, Hua
Dutrow, Gavin
Evans, James E.
Graham, James
Cummings, Bethany P.
Havel, Peter J.
Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan
Despa, Sanda
Hammock, Bruce D.
Despa, Florin
Publication Title: 
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Previous studies have consistently shown that caloric restriction (CR) decreases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) (mitROS) generation and oxidative damage to mtDNA and mitochondrial proteins, and increases maximum longevity, although the mechanisms responsible for this are unknown. We recently found that protein restriction (PR) also produces these changes independent of energy restriction. Various facts link methionine to aging, and methionine restriction (MetR) without energy restriction increases, like CR, maximum longevity.

Author(s): 
Sanz, Alberto
Caro, Pilar
Ayala, Victoria
Portero-Otín, Manuel
Pamplona, Reinald
Barja, Gustavo

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