Mitochondria, Liver

Publication Title: 
Phytochemistry

Four aqueous extracts from different parts of medicinal plants used in Ayurveda (an ancient Indian Medicine) viz., Momardica charantia Linn (AP1), Glycyrrhiza glabra (AP2), Acacia catechu (AP3), and Terminalia chebula (AP4) were examined for their potential as antioxidants. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was tested by studying the inhibition of radiation induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes at different doses in the range of 100-600 Gy as estimated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS).

Author(s): 
Naik, G. H.
Priyadarsini, K. I.
Satav, J. G.
Banavalikar, M. M.
Sohoni, D. P.
Biyani, M. K.
Mohan, H.
Publication Title: 
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology

Aqueous extract of a natural herb, Terminalia chebula was tested for potential antioxidant activity by examining its ability to inhibit gamma-radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and damage to superoxide dismutase enzyme in rat liver mitochondria. The antimutagenic activity of the extract has been examined by following the inhibition of gamma-radiation-induced strand breaks formation in plasmid pBR322 DNA.

Author(s): 
Naik, G. H.
Priyadarsini, K. I.
Naik, D. B.
Gangabhagirathi, R.
Mohan, H.
Publication Title: 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

SIGNIFICANCE: The free radical theory of aging has provided a theoretical framework for an enormous amount of work leading to significant advances in our understanding of aging. Up to the turn of the century, the theory received abundant support from observations coming from fields as far apart as comparative physiology or molecular biology. RECENT ADVANCES: Work from many laboratories supports the theory, for instance showing that overexpression of antioxidant enzymes results in increases in life-span.

Author(s): 
ViÒa, Jose
Borras, Consuelo
Abdelaziz, Kheira M.
Garcia-Valles, Rebeca
Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Calorie restriction (CR) increases lifespan in organisms ranging from budding yeast through mammals. Mitochondrial adaptation represents a key component of the response to CR. Molecular mechanisms underlying this adaptation are largely unknown. Here we show that lysine acetylation of mitochondrial proteins is altered during CR in a tissue-specific fashion. Via large-scale mass spectrometry screening, we identify 72 candidate proteins involved in a variety of metabolic pathways with altered acetylation during CR.

Author(s): 
Schwer, Bjoern
Eckersdorff, Mark
Li, Yu
Silva, Jeffrey C.
Fermin, Damian
Kurtev, Martin V.
Giallourakis, Cosmas
Comb, Michael J.
Alt, Frederick W.
Lombard, David B.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Dietary interventions are effective ways to extend or shorten lifespan. By examining midlife hepatic gene expressions in mice under different dietary conditions, which resulted in different lifespans and aging-related phenotypes, we were able to identify genes and pathways that modulate the aging process. We found that pathways transcriptionally correlated with diet-modulated lifespan and physiological changes were enriched for lifespan-modifying genes.

Author(s): 
Zhou, Bing
Yang, Liu
Li, Shoufeng
Huang, Jialiang
Chen, Haiyang
Hou, Lei
Wang, Jinbo
Green, Christopher D.
Yan, Zhen
Huang, Xun
Kaeberlein, Matt
Zhu, Li
Xiao, Huasheng
Liu, Yong
Han, Jing-Dong J.
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

It is known that a global decrease in food ingestion (dietary restriction, DR) lowers mitochondrial ROS generation (mitROS) and oxidative stress in young immature rats. This seems to be caused by the decreased methionine ingestion of DR animals. This is interesting since isocaloric methionine restriction in the diet (MetR) also increases, like DR, rodent maximum longevity.

Author(s): 
Sanchez-Roman, Ines
GÛmez, Alexia
PÈrez, Irene
Sanchez, Carlota
Suarez, Henar
Naudí, Alba
Jové, Mariona
Lopez-Torres, MÛnica
Pamplona, Reinald
Barja, Gustavo
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

We analyzed ultrastructural changes and markers of fission/fusion in hepatocyte mitochondria from mice submitted to 40% calorie restriction (CR) for 6 months versus ad-libitum-fed controls. To study the effects of dietary fat under CR, animals were separated into three CR groups with soybean oil (also in controls), fish oil, and lard. CR induced differential changes in hepatocyte and mitochondrial size, in the volume fraction occupied by mitochondria, and in the number of mitochondria per hepatocyte.

Author(s): 
Khraiwesh, Husam
LÛpez-DomÌnguez, JosÈ A.
LÛpez-Lluch, Guillermo
Navas, Pl·cido
de Cabo, Rafael
Ramsey, Jon J.
Villalba, JosÈ M.
Gonz·lez-Reyes, JosÈ A.
Publication Title: 
Gerontology

BACKGROUND: Dietary restriction (DR) is a well-established biological method for lifespan extension in various organisms by delaying the progression of age-related disorders. With regard to its molecular mechanisms, a family of NAD-dependent protein deacetylases, such as sirtuins, is considered to mediate DR-induced lifespan extension in some lower organisms. Furthermore, the effects of DR on sirtuins (e.g. SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, and SIRT5) have also been reported in mammals. However, the relationship between sirtuins and DR-associated longevity in mammals is still not clear.

Author(s): 
Nakamura, Akihiro
Kawakami, Kyojiro
Kametani, Fuyuki
Goto, Sataro
Publication Title: 
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Author(s): 
Blackburn, E. H.
Hird, F. J.
Jones, I. K.
Publication Title: 
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Author(s): 
Blackburn, E. H.
Hird, F. J.

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