Oxidative stress constitutes the basis of physio-pathological situations such as neurodegenerative diseases and aging. However, sublethal exposure to toxic molecules such as reactive oxygen species can induce cellular responses that result in stress fitness.
Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et MÈtabolisme
Compounds that delay aging in model organisms may be of significant interest to antiaging medicine, since these substances potentially provide pharmaceutical approaches to promote healthy lifespan in humans. The aim of the study was to test whether pharmaceutical concentrations of the glycolytic inhibitor lonidamine are capable of extending lifespan in a nematodal model organism for aging processes, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Several hundreds of adult C. elegans roundworms were maintained on agar plates and fed E. coli strain OP50 bacteria.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. (EUE), has commonly been used to fortify the muscles and lungs, lower blood pressure, prevent miscarriage, improve the tone of liver and kidneys, and promote longevity the traditional tonic medicines of Korea, China, and Japan. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we investigated that the neuroprotective activities and possible mechanisms of EUE aqueous extract in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced neuronal cell death in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
Tumors use a wide array of immunosuppressive strategies, such as reducing the longevity and survival of dendritic cells (DCs), to diminish immune responses and limit the effect of immunotherapy. In this study, we found that tumors upregulate the expression of multiple microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-16-1, miR-22, miR-155, and miR-503. These tumor-associated miRNAs influenced the survival and longevity of DCs by affecting the expression of multiple molecules that are associated with apoptotic signaling pathways.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ectopic expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in skeletal muscle (SM) mitochondria increases lifespan considerably in high-fat diet-fed UCP1 Tg mice compared with wild types (WT). To clarify the underlying mechanisms, we investigated substrate metabolism as well as oxidative stress damage and antioxidant defense in SM of low-fat- and high-fat-fed mice. Tg mice showed an increased protein expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, markers of lipid turnover (p-ACC, FAT/CD36), and an increased SM ex vivo fatty acid oxidation.
Estrogen receptors (ER alpha/ER beta) are expressed in neuronal cells and exhibit a variety of activities in the central nervous system. ER activity is regulated in a ligand-dependent manner and by co-regulatory factors. Caveolin-1 is a recently identified co-activator of ER alpha mediating the ligand-independent activation of this steroid receptor. Here the influence of ERs on caveolin expression in human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells as well as in rodent brain was investigated.
AIM: To elucidate the anti-inflammatory potentials and underlying mechanisms of SM905, a novel artemisinin derivative, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. METHODS: Nitric oxide (NO) generation, cytokine production, and the protein expression levels of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were examined using a Griess assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Western blotting assay, respectively. The mRNA expression was measured using real-time PCR.
Liver cancer ranks in prevalence and mortality among top five cancers worldwide. Accumulating interests have been focused in developing new strategies for liver cancer treatment. We have previously showed that dihydroartemisinin (DHA) exhibited antitumor activity towards liver cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) significantly augmented the antineoplastic effect of DHA via increasing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.
The biological activities and mechanisms of tea polyphenols and their polymerics have been attractive issues in cancer research. The inhibition of tea polyphenols on cancer cells decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Tremendous evidences have shown that tea polyphenols suppress tumor promotion by inhibiting enzyme activities and blocking signal transduction pathways. Specifically, the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways have been implicated as an important target molecular for cancer prevention and therapy.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Butea monosperma (Lam.) (Fabaceae) popularly known as 'flame of the forest' has been widely used in the traditional Indian medical system of 'Ayurveda' for the treatment of a variety of ailments including liver disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and anti-cancer activities of the aqueous extract of Butea monosperma flowers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried flowers of Butea monosperma were extracted with water.