Models, Chemical

Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

Most debates in science and the humanities that cannot be settled are not about truth, nor about data, but about beliefs and world views. Philippe Leick's comment on entanglement models of homeopathy are a good example. Because of this, no argument, however, convincing to some, will settle that debate. The only thing that can resolve it is a large cultural shift. My own ideas about non-local models, for a whole category of possibly similar events of which homeopathy is but one example.

Author(s): 
Walach, Harald
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

In order to fully comprehend its therapeutic mode of action, homeopathy might require both 'local' bio-molecular mechanisms, such as memory of water and 'non-local' macro-entanglement, such as patient-practitioner-remedy (PPR) descriptions.

Author(s): 
Milgrom, L. R.
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

Several hypothesized explanations for homeopathy posit that remedies contain a concentration of discrete information-carrying units, such as water clusters, nano-bubbles, or silicates. For any such explanation to be sustainable, dilution must reduce and succussion must restore the concentration of these units. Succussion can be modeled by a logistic equation, which leads to mathematical relationships involving the maximum concentration, the average growth of information-carrying units rate per succussion stroke, the number of succussion strokes, and the dilution factor (x, c, or LM).

Author(s): 
Anick, David J.
Publication Title: 
Folia Biologica

Positive evolutionary pressure has apparently preserved the ability to synthesize chemically authentic morphine, albeit in homeopathic concentrations, throughout animal phyla.

Author(s): 
Stefano, G. B.
Ptá?ek, R.
Kuželová, H.
Kream, R. M.
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

The diet known as calorie restriction (CR) is the most reproducible way to extend the lifespan of mammals. Many of the early hypotheses to explain this effect were based on it being a passive alteration in metabolism. Yet, recent data from yeast, worms, flies, and mammals support the idea that CR is not simply a passive effect but an active, highly conserved stress response that evolved early in life's history to increase an organism's chance of surviving adversity.

Author(s): 
Sinclair, David A.
Publication Title: 
Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry

Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), an endogenous constituent of the mammalian brain, acts as i) a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, ii) a medicine used for the treatment of narcolepsy and alcoholism, and iii) a drug illicitly used for its psychotropic effects. GHB is thought to act as a specific GHB receptor agonist as well as a weak gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptor agonist. Here, I review the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological properties of GHB and its interaction with GHB and GABA(B) receptors.

Author(s): 
Castelli, M. Paola
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

BACKGROUND: Most pharmacokinetic (PK) models used for propofol administration are based on studies in normal-weight patients. Extrapolation of these models for morbidly obese patients is controversial. Using 2 PK models and a target-controlled infusion system, we determined the predicted propofol effect-site concentration (Ce) needed for induction of anesthesia in morbidly obese subjects using total body weight.

Author(s): 
Echevarría, Ghislaine C.
Elgueta, María F.
Donoso, María T.
Bugedo, Diego A.
Cortínez, Luis I.
Muñoz, Hernán R.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Artemisinin and its derivatives are important new antimalarial drugs. When Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes are incubated with [10-3H]dihydroartemisinin, several malaria-specific proteins become labeled. One of these proteins is the P. falciparum translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) homolog. In vitro, dihydroartemisinin reacts covalently with recombinant TCTP in the presence of hemin. The association between drug and protein increases with increasing drug concentration, plateauing at approximately 1 drug/TCTP molecule.

Author(s): 
Bhisutthibhan, J.
Pan, X. Q.
Hossler, P. A.
Walker, D. J.
Yowell, C. A.
Carlton, J.
Dame, J. B.
Meshnick, S. R.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

At some point during biosynthesis of the antimalarial artemisinin in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua, the Delta11(13) double bond originating in amorpha-4,11-diene is reduced. This is thought to occur in artemisinic aldehyde, but other intermediates have been suggested. In an effort to understand double bond reduction in artemisinin biosynthesis, extracts of A. annua flower buds were investigated and found to contain artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13) double bond reductase activity.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Yansheng
Teoh, Keat H.
Reed, Darwin W.
Maes, Lies
Goossens, Alain
Olson, Douglas J. H.
Ross, Andrew R. S.
Covello, Patrick S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

To study the pharmacokinetic profile of artemether in children and in the context of antiviral drugs for HIV infected patients co-infected with malaria, an LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine artemether and its metabolite dihydroartemisinin in human plasma. Using artemisinin as the internal standard, 0.5 mL samples were processed with solid phase extraction (Waters Oasis HLB column), the elutes were directly injected onto a C18 LC column (Waters, Symmetry, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm).

Author(s): 
Huang, Liusheng
Jayewardene, Anura L.
Li, Xiaohua
Marzan, Florence
Lizak, Patricia S.
Aweeka, Francesca T.

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