Models, Econometric

Publication Title: 
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology

OBJECTIVE: Fluoride was first added to the Australian water supply in 1953, and by 2003, 69% of Australia's population was receiving the minimum recommended dose. Extending coverage of fluoridation to all remaining communities of at least 1000 people is a key strategy of Australia's National Oral Health Plan 2004-2013. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this strategy from an Australian health sector perspective. METHODS: Health gains from the prevention of caries in the Australian population are modelled over the average 15-year lifespan of a treatment plant.

Author(s): 
Cobiac, Linda J.
Vos, Theo
Publication Title: 
Health Economics

In Finland, municipal health care expenditure varies from FIM 3 800 per capita to FIM 7 800 per capita. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of different economic, structural and demographic factors on the per capita costs of health services and care of the elderly. Using regression analysis we attempted to explain observed differences in expenditure by determining separately the effects of allocative and productive inefficiency and the effects of factors influencing the demand for services.

Author(s): 
H‰kkinen, U.
Luoma, K.
Publication Title: 
The Rand Journal of Economics

This article identifies the impact of managed-care reforms on the utilization of medical services within the military health-services system. The data come from a recent demonstration project that substituted an HMO and PPO for traditional FFS arrangements. Results from a semiparametric model indicate that the generosity of benefits in the HMO increased demand for ambulatory services. Unlike the private-sector experience with managed care, aggressive utilization review did not significantly curtail inpatient stays.

Author(s): 
Goldman, D. P.
Publication Title: 
Inquiry: A Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing

This paper examines the effect of changing state policy, such as Medicaid eligibility, payment generosity, and HMO enrollment on provision of hospital uncompensated care. Using national data from the American Hospital Association for the period 1990 through 1995, we find that not-for-profit and public hospitals' uncompensated care levels respond positively to Medicaid payment generosity, although the magnitude of the effect is small. Not-for-profit hospitals respond negatively to Medicaid HMO penetration.

Author(s): 
Davidoff, A. J.
LoSasso, A. T.
Bazzoli, G. J.
Zuckerman, S.
Publication Title: 
Health Economics

This paper uses data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey to examine the nature of equilibrium in the market for employment-related health insurance. We examine coverage generosity, premiums, and insurance benefits net of expenditures on premiums, showing that despite a degree of market segmentation, there was a substantial amount of pooling of heterogeneous risks in 1987 among households with employment-related coverage. Our results are largely invariant to (i) firm size and (ii) whether or not employers offer a choice among plans.

Author(s): 
Monheit, A. C.
Selden, T. M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Health Economics

Although most private health insurance in US is employment-based, little is known about how employers choose health plans for their employees. In this paper, I examine the relationship between employee preferences for health insurance and the health plans offered by employers. I find evidence that employee characteristics affect the generosity of the health plans offered by employers and the likelihood that employers offer a choice of plans.

Author(s): 
Bundorf, M. Kate
Publication Title: 
Inquiry: A Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing

Concerns about attracting disproportionate numbers of employees with alcohol problems limit employers' willingness to offer health plans with generous alcohol treatment benefits. This paper analyzes two potential avenues of adverse selection, namely biased enrollment into plans and biased exit from plans offered by 57 employers between 1991 and 1997.

Author(s): 
Harris, Katherine M.
Sturm, Roland
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics

This study provides (a) new estimates of U.S. hospital profitability by payer group, controlling for hospital characteristics, and (b) evidence about the intensity of care for particular diseases associated with the generosity of the patient's payer and other payers at the same hospital. The conceptual framework is a variant of the well-known model of a local monopolist selling in a segmented market. Effects of two kinds of regulation are considered.

Author(s): 
Friedman, Bernard
Sood, Neeraj
Engstrom, Kelly
McKenzie, Diane
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics

This paper addresses two seeming paradoxes in the realm of employer-provided health insurance: First, businesses consistently claim that they bear the burden of the insurance they provide for employees, despite theory and empirical evidence indicating that workers bear the full incidence. Second, benefit generosity and the percentage of premiums paid by employers have decreased in recent decades, despite the preferential tax treatment of employer-paid benefits relative to wages-trends unexplained by the standard incidence model.

Author(s): 
Sommers, Benjamin D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Health Economics

In recent years the cost of health insurance has been increasing much faster than wages. In the face of these rising costs, many employers will have to make difficult decisions about whether to cut back health benefits or to compensate workers with lower wages or lower wage growth.

Author(s): 
Royalty, Anne Beeson

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