Models, Economic

Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: The collaborative treatment of acupuncture in addition to routine care as an approach for the management of low back pain (LBP) is receiving increasing recognition from both public and professional arenas. In 2010, the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Family Affairs (MOHW) of South Korea approved the practice of doctors and Oriental medical doctors (acupuncture qualified) working together in the same facility and offering collaborative treatment at the same time for the same disease.

Kim, Namkwen
Yang, Bongmin
Lee, Taejin
Kwon, Soonman
Publication Title: 
Rejuvenation Research

The question has arisen in the literature as to whether dietary restriction (DR) will have a significant effect on human longevity. I initially use literature data to estimate the energy costs necessary to carry a human from conception to caloric self-sufficiency to be approximately 12.6 x 10(6)kcal, which amounts to approximately 25% of the the two parents' combined daily caloric intake for 20 years. Similar levels of financial costs are expended in developed societies. Thus, human reproductive costs are high enough to permit a DR response.

Arking, Robert
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Punishment of free-riding has been implicated in the evolution of cooperation in humans, and yet mechanisms for punishment avoidance remain largely uninvestigated. Individual variation in these mechanisms may stem from variation in the serotonergic system, which modulates processing of aversive stimuli. Functional serotonin gene variants have been associated with variation in the processing of aversive stimuli and widely studied as risk factors for psychiatric disorders.

Schroeder, Kari B.
McElreath, Richard
Nettle, Daniel
Publication Title: 
Health Services Research

OBJECTIVE: This research addresses the following types of responses by hospitals to increased financial risk: (a) increases in prices to privately insured patients (testing separately the effects of risk from the effects of "cost-shifting" that depends on level of Medicare payment in relation to case mix-adjusted cost); (b) changes in service mix offered and selectivity in acceptance of patients to reduce risk; and (c) efforts to reduce variation in resource use for those patients admitted.

Friedman, B.
Farley, D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Health Economics

This study investigates the capacity of hospitals to vary the intensity of their services based on patients' expected sources of payment. While the concept of price discrimination by hospitals based on payer generosity ("cost-shifting") has been discussed extensively, the notion that hospitals can adjust payer-specific marginal costs to reflect differences in reimbursement policies has not been studied in depth. To examine this issue.

Dor, A.
Farley, D. E.
Publication Title: 
Lancet (London, England)

BACKGROUND: Many important social determinants of health are also the focus for social policies. Welfare states contribute to the resources available for their citizens through cash transfer programmes and subsidised services. Although all rich nations have welfare programmes, there are clear cross-national differences with respect to their design and generosity. These differences are evident in national variations in poverty rates, especially among children and elderly people.

Lundberg, Olle
Yngwe, Monica Aberg
Stj‰rne, Maria KˆlegÂrd
Elstad, Jon Ivar
Ferrarini, Tommy
Kangas, Olli
Norstrˆm, Thor
Palme, Joakim
Fritzell, Johan
NEWS Nordic Expert Group
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Contemporary economic models hold that instrumental and impulsive behaviors underlie human social decision making. The amygdala is assumed to be involved in social-economic behavior, but its role in human behavior is poorly understood. Rodent research suggests that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) subserves instrumental behaviors and regulates the central-medial amygdala, which subserves impulsive behaviors. The human amygdala, however, typically is investigated as a single unit.

van Honk, Jack
Eisenegger, Christoph
Terburg, David
Stein, Dan J.
Morgan, Barak
Publication Title: 
Health Services Research

BACKGROUND: Fiscal constraints faced by Medicare are leading to policies designed to reduce expenditures. Evidence of the effect of reduced reimbursement on the mortality of Medicare patients discharged from all major hospital service lines is limited. METHODS: We modeled risk-adjusted 30-day mortality of patients discharged from 21 hospital service lines as a function of service line profitability, service line time trends, and hospital service line and year-fixed effects. We simulated the effect of alternative revenue-neutral reimbursement policies on mortality.

Lindrooth, Richard C.
Konetzka, R. Tamara
Navathe, Amol S.
Zhu, Jingsan
Chen, Wei
Volpp, Kevin
Publication Title: 
Health Affairs (Project Hope)

Lowering both Medicare spending and the rate of Medicare spending growth is important for the nation's fiscal health. Policy makers in search of ways to achieve these reductions have looked at the role that supplemental coverage for Medicare beneficiaries plays in Medicare spending. Supplemental coverage makes health care more affordable for beneficiaries but also makes beneficiaries insensitive to the cost of their care, thereby increasing the demand for care.

Golberstein, Ezra
Walsh, Kayo
He, Yulei
Chernew, Michael E.
Publication Title: 
Health Economics

Post-acute care provided by skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) is reimbursed by Medicare under a prospective payment system using resource utilization groups (RUGs) that adjust payment intensity on the basis of predefined ranges of weekly therapy minutes provided and the functionality of the patient. Individual RUGs account for differences in the intensity of care provided, but there exists significant regional variation in the payments SNFs receive from Medicare due to the use of geographic adjustment factors.

Bowblis, John R.
Brunt, Christopher S.


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