Antibody production is an important feature of the vertebrate immune system. Antibodies neutralize and clear pathogens, thereby protecting against infectious diseases. Such humoral immunity has great longevity, often persisting for the host's lifetime. Long-lived humoral immunity depends on help provided by CD4(+) T cells, namely T follicular helper (TFH) cells, which support the differentiation of antigen-specific B cells into memory and plasma cells.
Naturally occurring T regulatory cells targeting epitopes derived from various heat shock proteins escape thymic negative selection and can be activated by vaccination with heat shock proteins; hence, vaccination with such proteins has exerted favorable effects on rodent models of autoimmune disorders.
Inflammation is pivotal in atherosclerosis. M-CSF regulates macrophage growth and differentiation and plays a role in atherogenesis. C-reactive protein (CRP), a cardiovascular risk marker, may promote atherogenesis. However, the effects of CRP on M-CSF release and subsequent macrophage proliferation have not been examined previously. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were incubated with boiled CRP or native CRP 12.5, 25, and 50 microg/mL for 12-15 h, and M-CSF release was examined by flow cytometry and ELISA.
It is known that vitamin A and its metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), are essential for host defense. However, the mechanisms for how RA controls inflammation are incompletely understood. The findings presented in this study show that RA signaling occurs concurrent with the development of inflammation. In models of vaccination and allogeneic graft rejection, whole body imaging reveals that RA signaling is temporally and spatially restricted to the site of inflammation.
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is one of 15 evolutionarily conserved ß-galactoside-binding proteins that display biologically-diverse activities in pathogenesis of inflammation and cancer. Gal-1 is variably expressed on immune cells and endothelial cells, though is commonly found and secreted at high levels in cancer cells. It induces apoptosis in effector T cells through homodimeric binding of N-acetyllactosamines on membrane glycoproteins (Gal-1 ligands).
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research: The Official Journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
Several lines of evidence strongly implicate type I interferons (IFN-α and β) and IFN-signaling in the pathogenesis of certain autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Accordingly, genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in the type I IFN-signaling pathways. Other studies also indicate that a feed-forward loop of type I IFN production, which involves sensing of cytoplasmic nucleic acids by sensors, contributes to the development of immunopathology.
Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
The immune system has been reported to suppress the development and progression of neoplastic lesions; however, the exact mechanisms by which neoplastic lesions and the immune system interact are not well understood. Within the last decade, tiny membrane bound particles, approximately 30-100 nm in diameter, have been observed in the blood and other body fluids. These particles, currently called exosomes, are released from many types of tissues including tumors, and they contain and carry many proteins, and mRNAs and microRNA species.
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic bacterium that has re-emerged as a facultative pathogen and can cause nosocomial diarrhea, colitis or even death. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ has been implicated in the prevention of inflammation in autoimmune and infectious diseases; however, its role in the immunoregulatory mechanisms modulating host responses to C. difficile and its toxins remains largely unknown. To characterize the role of PPARγ in C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), immunity and gut pathology, we used a mouse model of C.
T helper (Th) cells play a major role in the immune response and pathology at the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection. There is a limited mechanistic understanding regarding the contributions of CD4+ T cell subsets to gastritis development during H. pylori colonization. We used two computational approaches: ordinary differential equation (ODE)-based and agent-based modeling (ABM) to study the mechanisms underlying cellular immune responses to H. pylori and how CD4+ T cell subsets influenced initiation, progression and outcome of disease.