ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (Oleaceae) is a mythological plant; has high medicinal values in Ayurveda. The popular medicinal use of this plant are anti-helminthic and anti-pyretic besides its use as a laxative, in rheumatism, skin ailments and as a sedative. Vitally, the natives plant it in their home gardens to pass on its medicinal usage to oncoming generations.
Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to review the literature regarding Withania somnifera (ashwagandha, WS) a commonly used herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Specifically, the literature was reviewed for articles pertaining to chemical properties, therapeutic benefits, and toxicity.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Inula comprises more than one hundred species widespread in temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Uses of this genus as herbal medicines have been first recorded by the Greek and Roman ancient physicians. In the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, from the 20 Inula spp. distributed in China, three are used as Traditional Chinese medicines, named Tumuxiang, Xuanfuhua and Jinfeicao. These medicines are used as expectorants, antitussives, diaphoretics, antiemetics, and bactericides. Moreover, Inula helenium L.
The bioassay-directed isolation of Terminalia chebula fruits afforded four human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitors, gallic acid ( 1) and three galloyl glucoses ( 2 - 4). In addition, four flavonol glycoside gallates ( 5 - 8) from Euphorbia pekinensis containing the galloyl moiety also showed the inhibitory activity at a level comparable to those of 2 - 4.
A 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit, was studied for its effects on growth in several malignant cell lines including a human (MCF-7) and mouse (S115) breast cancer cell line, a human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-1), a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) and a non-tumorigenic, immortalized human prostate cell line (PNT1A) using assays for proliferation ([(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and coulter counting), cell viability (ATP determination) and cell death (flow cytometry and Hoechst DNA staining).
A RP-HPLC method for determining fourteen components (gallic acid, chebulic acid, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose, punicalagin, 3,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose, casuarinin, chebulanin, corilagin, neochebulinic acid, terchebulin, ellagic acid, chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-D-glucose) in the fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz. is described. The separation was achieved within 80 min using a binary gradient with mobile phases consisting of a pH 2.7 phosphoric acid solution and an 80% CH3CN solution.
As a chromatographic column, the high-speed counter-current chromatography system was equipped with a preparative HPLC series, enabling the successful isolation of hydrolysable tannins from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, a traditional Chinese medicine. The two-phase solvent system was composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:20:1:20 v/v). As a result, 33.2 mg chebulagic and 15.8 mg chebulinic acids were obtained in one step from 300 mg of crude extract. Their purities were determined by HPLC to be 95.3 and 96.1%, respectively.
Triphala is an anti-oxidant-rich herbal formulation containing fruits of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and T. belerica in equal proportions. The preparation is frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat diseases such as anaemia, jaundice, constipation, asthma, fever and chronic ulcers. Anti-mutagenic effects of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from Triphala have been reported, thus indicating that the phenols present in the formulation might be responsible for its therapeutic efficacy.
Medicinal Chemistry (Shariqah (United Arab Emirates))
Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn.
Triphala is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans: Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. We recently reported that chebulagic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula is a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor. In this study, compounds isolated from Terminalia bellerica were tested for inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent inhibition against COX enzymes with no inhibition against 5-LOX. It was identified as gallic acid (GA) by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses.