OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of six interventions for menopausal vasomotor symptoms relative to control in a pooled analysis, facilitating translation of the results for clinicians and symptomatic women. The Menopause Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health network tested these interventions in three randomized clinical trials. METHODS: An analysis of pooled individual-level data from three randomized clinical trials is presented. Participants were 899 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with at least 14 bothersome vasomotor symptoms per week.
BACKGROUND: over the next 20 years it is anticipated that there will be a significant increase in those aged 75 and over, and a consequent increase in cardiovascular disease, cancer and chronic illness. As this shift takes effect, there will be an increased need for treatment strategies that are of known benefit to this age group and a consequent rise in demand for clinical trials that are conducted specifically with the older population.
Subjects were Royal New Zealand Air Force pilots and this investigator (N = 8). Skin conductance response (SCR) was measured during a localizer approach for both inflight and simulator phases of the study. SCR's were noted following all ground controller altitude and heading change instructions and for all pilot-initiated heading and altitude changes employed to comply with the localizer approach plate. Inflight SCR's following ground controller instructions were substantially greater than those related to pilot initiated responses to cockpit information.
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
4 physiological measures--electromyogram, respiration rate, heart rate, and skin conductance--were recorded for 11 high and 11 low hypnotizable Ss. It was hypothesized (a) that physiological responsiveness during hypnosis would vary depending on the nature of the task instructions, and (b) that high hypnotizable Ss would show more physiological responsiveness than low hypnotizable Ss. The first hypothesis was substantiated across all 4 measures. Only heart rate levels supported the second hypothesis. The results are discussed as they relate to the 2 hypotheses and to future research.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. Supplement
Gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures are invasive and carry a significant morbidity and mortality, even for diagnostic procedures (mortality of 1 in 2000 for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy). The commonest causes of death are cardiopulmonary complications, which may in part be related to sedative techniques. The clinical end-points for sedation need to be reappraised and should aim to induce amnesia rather than hypnosis. Endoscopists need to be familiar with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the benzodiazepines used for sedation.
One may have to use a monitor of cortical suppression to maintain the optimal level of sedation and hypnosis. The bispectral index (BIS), a processed EEG parameter, which incorporates coupling along with the frequency and amplitude of EEG waveforms, has been proposed as a measure of the pharmacodynamic anaesthetic effect on the central nervous system. The numerical value of BIS varies from 0 to 100 (no cerebral activity to fully awake patient).
We have studied the effect of nitrous oxide on bispectral index (BIS), calculated from a bipolar encephalogram. Inhalation of 70% nitrous oxide resulted in loss of consciousness in all healthy volunteers (n = 10) but no change in BIS. Brief inhalation up to 1.2% sevoflurane also resulted in loss of consciousness in volunteers (n = 5), but with sevoflurane, BIS decreased. BIS and the haemodynamic effects of adding nitrous oxide were also measured during coronary artery bypass surgery in patients (n = 10) receiving midazolam and fentanyl infusions.
The bispectral index (BIS) has been developed in adults and correlates well with clinical hypnotic effects of anesthetics. We investigated whether BIS reflects clinical markers of hypnosis and demonstrates agent dose-responsiveness in infants and children. In an observational arm of this study, BIS values in children undergoing general anesthesia were observed and compared with similar data collected previously in a study of adults. In a second arm of the study, a range of steady-state end-tidal concentrations of sevoflurane was administered and corresponding BIS documented.
Focussing on processes of body perception is a major pathway of relaxation therapies (progressive relaxation, autogenic training, guided imagery, hypnotherapy, biofeedback). Traditionally its application has been related to psychosomatic and psychotherapeutic indications. Beyond this classical approach, recent behavioral medicine has emphasized the relevance of interoception processes and adequate attribution patterns concerning bodily sensations as a major source of adequate coping and self-management with somatic illness.
A model-based closed-loop control system is presented to regulate hypnosis with the volatile anesthetic isoflurane. Hypnosis is assessed by means of the bispectral index (BIS), a processed parameter derived from the electroencephalogram. Isoflurane is administered through a closed-circuit respiratory system. The model for control was identified on a population of 20 healthy volunteers. It consists of three parts: a model for the respiratory system, a pharmacokinetic model and a pharmacodynamic model to predict BIS at the effect compartment. A cascaded internal model controller is employed.