Life expectancy has dramatically increased in industrialized countries since the 1900s due to advances in disease prevention and treatment, and improvements in nutrition and infant mortality. Thus, as a society we are living longer and experiencing more of the changes and declines associated with aging. Although the factors that cause our bodies to age are unknown, various medical interventions have been proposed and explored to prevent the process. Published research on aging conducted during the past 10 years was retrieved through MEDLINE and critically evaluated.
The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
The purpose of this paper was to selectively review the literature on the role of epigenetics in mental illnesses. Aberrant epigenetic regulation has been clearly implicated in the aetiology of some human illnesses. In recent years a growing body of evidence has highlighted the possibility that epigenetics may also play a key role in the origins and expression of mental disorders. Epigenetic phenomena may help explain some of the complexity of mental illnesses and provide a basis for discovering novel pharmacological targets to treat these disorders.
The neuropharmacological profile of the total fungal extract of F. moniliforme (FM) has been investigated. FM produced dose related decrease in spontaneous motor activity (SMA) and exploratory activity, potentiated pentobarbitone hypnosis and the anticonvulsant actions of phenobarbitone and phenytoin against MES seizures, potentiated PTZ and tryptamine seizures, antagonised reserpine induced syndrome, attenuated tetrabenazine and morphine induced catalepsy and potentiated haloperidol catalepsy. FM showed per se antinociceptive activity and potentiated morphine analgesia.
Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
The purpose of the new drugs for Parkinson's disease is control of the long-term levodopa treatment syndromes, especially wearing-off phenomenon and dyskinesia. Therefore, they show long T1/2. Most of them are classified into dopamine agonists. Others are monoamine oxidase B inhibitor and cathecole-o-methyltransferase inhibitor. Marketed dopamine agonists are bromocriptine, pergolide, talipexole, and cabergoline in Japan. Except talipexole, they are all ergot alkaloid derivatives. Their affinity for dopamine receptor is D2 group, and their T1/2 are longer than levodopa.
Tourette's disorder is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised clinically by motor and vocal tics, which may be associated to conductual disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurochemistry of Tourette's disorder is not well known, there are some effective therapies for tics, OCD and ADHD. However, these are not devoid of adverse effects. Tics only require treatment when they interfere with the functioning of the patient.
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
The roots of Withania somnifera (WS) are used extensively in Ayurveda, the classical Indian system of medicine, and WS is categorized as a rasayana, which are used to promote physical and mental health, to provide defence against disease and adverse environmental factors and to arrest the aging process. WS has been used to stabilize mood in patients with behavioural disturbances. The present study investigated the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions of the bioactive glycowithanolides (WSG), isolated from WS roots, in rats.
Hyoscyamus species is one of the four plants used in Ayurveda for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Since Hyoscyamus niger was found to contain negligible levels of L-DOPA, we evaluated neuroprotective potential, if any, of characterized petroleum ether and aqueous methanol extracts of its seeds in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD in mice. Air dried authenticated H. niger seeds were sequentially extracted using petroleum ether and aqueous methanol and were characterized employing HPLC-electrochemistry and LCMS.
Aging is characterized by development of diseases and cancer due to loss of central and peripheral neuroendocrine-immune responses. Free radicals exert deleterious effects on neural-immune functions in the brain, heart, and lymphoid organs and thus, affecting the health. Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), an Ayurvedic herb, and L-deprenyl, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, have been widely used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant that has been used worldwide for its nootropic action. Chemically standardized extract of B. monniera is now available as over the counter herbal remedy to enhance memory in children and adults. Considering the nootropic action of B. monniera, we evaluated the effect of clinically available B. monniera extract and six of B. monniera constituents (bacoside A3, bacopaside I, bacopaside II, bacosaponin C, bacosine, and bacoside A mixture) on recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes.
Soy isoflavonoids have well-established estrogenic properties in cell culture and rodent models, raising concerns that high isoflavonoid intake may promote development of uterine and breast cancers. To address this concern we evaluated the effects of high-dose isoflavonoid supplements on reproductive tissues in a postmenopausal primate model.