The authors addressed whether parental expression of disappointment should be included as a distinct factor in M. L. Hoffman's well-established typology of parenting styles (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion). Hoffman's 3-factor model, along with a more inclusive 4-factor model (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion, and expressions of disappointment), were respectively evaluated in exploratory factor analyses. The analysis utilized extant data comprised of responses by children (N = 73) and their mothers (N = 67) to an adaptation of M. L. Hoffman and H. D.
Within the fields of socialization and moral development, the relationship of parenting to adolescents' sense of morality and self has been understudied. This study investigated the relationships between perceived parental disciplinary techniques and moral identity among early and middle adolescents. Participants included 93 (54% female) 5th, 8th and 10th graders, as well as their mothers. Students completed self-report measures concerning their mothers' disciplinary techniques and moral self-concept; mothers reported specifically on parental discipline frequency.
Despite cultural and individual variation, humans are a judgmental bunch. There is accumulating evidence for early social and moral evaluation as shown by research with infants and children documenting the notion that some behaviors are perceived as right and others are perceived as wrong. Moreover, social interactions are governed by a concern for fairness and others' well-being. However, although generosity increases between infancy and late childhood, it is less clear what mechanisms guide this change.
Reproductive gift relationships must be seen in their totality, not just as helping someone have a child. Noncommercial surrogacy cannot be treated as a mere act of altruism--any valorizing of altruistic surrogacy and reproductive gift-giving must be assessed within the wider context of women's political inequality.
Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
PURPOSE: To assess a scale that measures professional attitudes and behaviors associated with the medical education and the residency training environment. METHOD: In 1995-96, the authors surveyed medical students and residents from five institutions in the northeast region of the United States. RESULTS: Of 757 distributed questionnaires, 565 were returned (75% response rate). Of those, 529 (94%) were used in the analysis. The mean score for the retained 12 items was 92.9 (SD, 11.9), with higher scores indicating more positive perceptions.
The research described in this article was a descriptive study for determining the relationship between the degree of burnout experienced by nurses working in Kocaeli (Turkey), and their personal and professional values. A questionnaire was developed by using information gained from the literature on this subject and from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The questionnaire was delivered to nurses working in two different hospitals (State Hospital of Izmit and the GˆlÁ¸k Sea Hospital) in Kocaeli.
The present study explored adolescents' ethical self-images and related behavioral decisions. Data were collected from two groups of adolescent girls (N = 49) using an open-ended survey. One group attended a public high school for gifted students and the other group attended an alternative public high school. The results indicate that goodness is connected with altruism, adherence to external standards, or self-beneficial actions. Alternatively, badness is associated with going against social norms, harming others, or violating inner values.
Noting that the social and emotional experiences of American children today often heavily involve electronic media, Barbara Wilson takes a close look at how exposure to screen media affects children's well-being and development. She concludes that media influence on children depends more on the type of content that children find attractive than on the sheer amount of time they spend in front of the screen. Wilson begins by reviewing evidence on the link between media and children's emotions.