BACKGROUND: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an established treatment in managing liver primary neoplasms or liver metastases. Postembolization syndrome (PES) is a common adverse event defined as fever without associated sepsis, pain in the right upper quadrant, and nausea and/or vomiting. OBJECTIVE: This integrative review aims to identify effective management strategies for PES or one of its characterizing symptoms (fever, pain, and nausea and/or vomiting). METHODS: Searches of electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were conducted.
BACKGROUND: Terminalia chebula Retz is traditionally used to relieve constipation. The current study was performed to investigate the pharmacological action of aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula seeds (ATC) in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Terminal pieces of rat ileum were suspended in organ bath containing Tyrode solution. The ileum spontaneous motility frequency and contractility were recorded isotonically. To induce ileal contraction, carbachol and ATC were added to the organ bath.
BACKGROUND: Prenatal cannabis exposure has been linked to addiction vulnerability, but the neurobiology underlying this risk is unknown. METHODS: Striatal dopamine and opioid-related genes were studied in human fetal subjects exposed to cannabis (as well as cigarettes and alcohol). Cannabis-related gene disturbances observed in the human fetus were subsequently characterized with an animal model of prenatal ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (.15 mg/kg) exposure.
Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Tolerance represents a dynamic mechanism that can be used to temper various regulatory processes regardless of whether they mediate excitation or inhibition. Tolerance operationally directs state-dependent attenuation of the action of endogenous and exogenous morphine. For example, tolerance ensures that immuno-inhibition induced by morphine does not compromise a requisite functional system over an extended period of time. In the nervous system, tolerance to inhibitory action insures that excitatory tone is resumed.
The effects of hypnosis, acupuncture and analgesic drugs on the subjective experience of pain and on objective neurophysiological parameters were investigated. Pain was produced by brief electric stimuli on the wrist. Pain challengers were: hypnosis (induced by two different video tapes), acupuncture (at specific and unspecific loci, with and without electrical stimulation of the needles), morphine and ketamine. Evaluation of clinical parameters included the subjective experience of pain intensity, blood pressure, puls, temperature, psychosomatic symptoms and side effects.
Our experiments demonstrate that morphine and haloperidol produce two distinct and contrasting behavioral states, which can be thought of as exaggerated, isolated, and simplified forms of organized adaptive behavioral states functioning as components of normal motivated behavior. Haloperidol catalepsy constitutes an organized state in which tonic reactions subserving the maintenance of stable static equilibrium prevail, at the expense of phasic locomotor reactions.