Mortality hazard and length of time until death are widely used as health outcome measures and are themselves of fundamental demographic interest. Considerable research has asked whether labor force retirement reduces subsequent health and its mortality measures. Previous studies have reported positive, negative, and null effects of retirement on subsequent longevity and mortality hazard, but inconsistent findings are difficult to resolve because (1) nearly all data confound retirement with unemployment of older workers, and often, (2) endogeneity bias is rarely addressed analytically.
BACKGROUND: Women in the region of Navarra, Spain, have one of the highest life expectancies at birth in Europe. The aim of this study is to assess the completeness of the official mortality statistics of Navarra in 2009 and the impact of the under-registration of deaths on life expectancy estimates.
In the late seventies, a small tribal population of Paraguay, the Ache, living under natural conditions, was studied. Data from this population turn out to be useful for considerations about evolutionary hypotheses on the aging phenomenon. 1) Ache show an age-related increasing mortality, which strongly limits the mean duration of life, as observed in other studies on mammal and bird species. 2) According to current theories on aging, in the wild very few or no individual reach old age and, so, aging cannot be directly influenced by natural selection.
Eighty-two people dating from 1975 to 1879 compared with 182 modern middle-class White and Black skeletons test the myths of radical changes produced by improved diet, less disease, and nineteenth century immigration. Longevity increases and health and growth improvement is clearest in reduced juvenile deaths (census data) and deepening of true pelvis. Stature increase is minimal (though seventeenth century Londoners and modern West Africans are shorter than Colonial to Modern Americans); teeth deteriorate and for cultural reasons fractures increase. Clavicles and forearms elongate.
Since Morgan, many research workers have attempted to answer the question whether intensive training and athletic competition can alter life span. A review of the literature yields few clear conclusions. The difficulty seems that the human life span is affected by a multiplicity of factors including physical characteristics (sex, age and body type), lifestyle (factors such as habitual activity, smoking and drinking habits and diet), environmental variables (air and water quality, exposure to sunlight, noise etc.), physiological factors, personality and inheritance.
Diet is a component in the etiology of the two major causes of death in the United States, namely, cardiovascular disease and cancer. During the last decade, various organizations have suggested that we alter the "typical" American diet in order to decrease the incidence of these diseases even though both diseases are indisputably of multiple etiology. An implication behind these recommendations is that individuals will increase their longevity by changing their diets.