Mortality

Publication Title: 
Annals of Epidemiology

Although ancient thinkers suggested that physical activity is good for health, systematic research on the topic did not begin until the middle of the 20th century. Early reports showed that individuals in active occupations had lower rates of heart disease than individuals in sedentary occupations. Investigators then began to evaluate leisure-time physical activity and health and found similar results. Later research used objective measures of cardiorespiratory fitness as the exposure, and found even stronger associations with health outcomes.

Author(s): 
Blair, Steven N.
Morris, Jeremy N.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is variability in the association between dietary intake and health outcomes across different countries, especially among the elderly. We used the gold standard dietary assessment method, a weighed food record, to examine the association between dietary pattern and mortality in a representative sample of community dwelling participants from Great Britain aged 65 years and older. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dietary intake was recorded at baseline in 1017 elderly participants (520 men, 497 women, mean age 76.3+/-7.4 years).

Author(s): 
Hamer, M.
McNaughton, S. A.
Bates, C. J.
Mishra, G. D.
Publication Title: 
Physiology & Behavior

Restriction of food intake by 10-50% of ad libitum on a per unit of weight or energy content basis can extend the lifespan of a wide variety of species and prevent or delay age-related disease. This review first briefly summarizes the data delineating mortality trajectories of various species' populations maintained on restricted diets to provide insight into the effects of nutrient deprivation on distinct components of the aging process.

Author(s): 
Pijl, Hanno
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Nutrition

Epidemiological studies show that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) increases longevity; however, few studies are restricted to Mediterranean populations or explore the effect of a MD pattern that directly incorporates olive oil. Therefore the relationship between adherence to the MD and mortality was studied within the the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). The EPIC-Spain analysis included 40 622 participants (37∑7†% males) aged 29-69 years who were recruited from five Spanish regions in 1992-1996.

Author(s): 
Buckland, Genevieve
Agudo, Antonio
Travier, Noemie
Huerta, JosÈ MarÌa
Cirera, LluÌs
Tormo, MarÌa-JosÈ
Navarro, Carmen
Chirlaque, MarÌa Dolores
Moreno-Iribas, Conchi
Ardanaz, Eva
Barricarte, Aurelio
Etxeberria, Jaione
Marin, Pilar
QuirÛs, J. RamÛn
Redondo, MarÌa-Luisa
LarraÒaga, Nerea
Amiano, Pilar
Dorronsoro, Miren
Arriola, Larraitz
Basterretxea, Mikel
Sanchez, MarÌa-JosÈ
Molina, Esther
Gonz·lez, Carlos A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Dietary guidelines generally recommend avoiding a high-fat diet. However, the relationship between fat subtypes and mortality remains unclear especially in a population with a relatively low intake of fat. We aimed to prospectively examine the relationship between dietary fat intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese community. In 1992, a total of 28,356 residents of Takayama, Japan, without cancer, stroke, or coronary heart disease, responded to a validated 169-item FFQ. We identified 4616 deaths during a 16-y follow-up.

Author(s): 
Nagata, Chisato
Nakamura, Kozue
Wada, Keiko
Oba, Shino
Tsuji, Michiko
Tamai, Yuya
Kawachi, Toshiaki
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

BACKGROUND: The longer healthy life expectancy observed in Japan may be partly attributed to the Japanese diet. The researchers sought to examine whether serum isoflavone levels are associated with disability and death. METHODS: The researchers used a nested case-control study to compare serum isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, and equol) levels between 165 participants that died or were certificated as disabled (cases) and 177 controls. Disability was defined by certification of long-term care insurance.

Author(s): 
Hozawa, Atsushi
Sugawara, Yumi
Tomata, Yasutake
Kakizaki, Masako
Tsuboya, Toru
Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori
Nakaya, Naoki
Kuriyama, Shinichi
Fukao, Akira
Tsuji, Ichiro
Publication Title: 
Nutrition Journal

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the linkage between food cost and mortality among older adults. This study considers the hypothesis that greater food expenditure in general, and particularly on more nutritious plant and animal-derived foods, decreases mortality in older adults. METHODS: This study uses the 1999-2000 Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan and follows the cohort until 2008, collecting 24-hr dietary recall data for 1781 participants (874 men and 907 women) aged 65 y or older.

Author(s): 
Lo, Yuan-Ting
Chang, Yu-Hung
Wahlqvist, Mark L.
Huang, Han-Bin
Lee, Meei-Shyuan
Publication Title: 
Aging

Telomere length (TL) has been proposed as a marker of mitotic cell age and as a general index of human organismic aging. Short absolute leukocyte telomere length has been linked to cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to test whether the rate of change in leukocyte TL is related to mortality in a healthy elderly cohort. We examined a subsample of 236 randomly selected Caucasian participants from the MacArthur Health Aging Study (aged 70 to 79 years). DNA samples from baseline and 2.5 years later were assayed for mean TL of leukocytes.

Author(s): 
Epel, Elissa S.
Merkin, Sharon Stein
Cawthon, Richard
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Adler, Nancy E.
Pletcher, Mark J.
Seeman, Teresa E.
Publication Title: 
Aging

Telomere length (TL) has been proposed as a marker of mitotic cell age and as a general index of human organismic aging. Short absolute leukocyte telomere length has been linked to cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to test whether the rate of change in leukocyte TL is related to mortality in a healthy elderly cohort. We examined a subsample of 236 randomly selected Caucasian participants from the MacArthur Health Aging Study (aged 70 to 79 years). DNA samples from baseline and 2.5 years later were assayed for mean TL of leukocytes.

Author(s): 
Epel, Elissa S.
Merkin, Sharon Stein
Cawthon, Richard
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Adler, Nancy E.
Pletcher, Mark J.
Seeman, Teresa E.
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

There has been little recent research in Europe exploring the relationship between religion and health. In Northern Ireland previous analysis has tended to divide the population dichotomously as Catholic and Protestant, ignoring the diversity inherent in the Protestant community. This study used a census-based longitudinal study of the enumerated population with five-years follow-up (covering the period 2001-2006) to examine variation in overall and cause-specific mortality by religious affiliation within Northern Ireland.

Author(s): 
O'Reilly, Dermot
Rosato, Michael

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