Aedes aegypti Linn is one of the most important mosquito species. The vectors are responsible for causing deadly diseases like dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Several chemical pesticides used to control these dengue vectors caused severe toxic significances on human health and other non-target beneficial insects. Therefore the current investigation has been made to access the bio-efficacy of the crude seed extracts of T. chebula against the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The GC-MS analysis of crude seed extracts of T.
OBJECTIVE: The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) in Vietnam is based on application of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), spraying of insecticides and early microscopic diagnosis of malaria and treatment (EDTM) with artemisinin drugs. This study explores the implementation of the NMCP at provincial level and its impact on malaria incidence (mi) and prevalence in Binh Thuan in southern Vietnam.
BACKGROUND: Between 1995 and 2000, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, experienced a marked increase in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, fuelled by pyrethroid and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. In response, vector control was strengthened and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was deployed in the first Ministry of Health artemisinin-based combination treatment policy in Africa. In South Africa, effective vector and parasite control had historically ensured low-intensity malaria transmission.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost effectiveness of selected malaria control interventions in the context of reaching the millennium development goals for malaria. DESIGN: Generalised cost effectiveness analysis. DATA SOURCES: Efficacy data came from the literature and authors' calculations supported by expert opinion. Quantities for resource inputs came from the literature and from expert opinion; prices came from the WHO-CHOICE database.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
A community-based baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted in three districts in Togo in September 2004 as part of a multidisciplinary evaluation of the impact of the Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign. During this campaign, long-lasting-insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITNs) were distributed to households with children between 9 months and 5 years of age throughout the country in December 2004. The pre-intervention survey provided baseline malaria and anemia prevalence in children < 5 years of age during peak malaria transmission.
BACKGROUND: The Roll Back Malaria strategy recommends a combination of interventions for malaria control. Zanzibar implemented artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for uncomplicated malaria in late 2003 and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) from early 2006. ACT is provided free of charge to all malaria patients, while LLINs are distributed free to children under age 5 y ("under five") and pregnant women.
BACKGROUND: Prevention of malaria epidemics is a priority for African countries. The 2000 malaria epidemic in Burundi prompted the government to implement measures for preventing future outbreaks. Case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy and malaria surveillance were nationally improved. A vector control programme was initiated in one of the most affected highland provinces. The focal distribution of malaria vectors in the highlands was the starting point for designing a targeted vector control strategy.
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been distributed nationwide by 2007. METHODS: In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately) endemic malaria occurs.
Diagnostic testing for malaria has for many years been eschewed, lest it be an obstacle to the delivery of rapid, life-saving treatment. The approach of treating malaria without confirmatory testing has been reinforced by the availability of inexpensive treatment with few side effects, by the great difficulty of establishing quality-assured microscopy in rural and resource-poor settings, and by the preeminence of malaria as a cause of important fever in endemic regions. Within the last decade, all three of these factors have changed.
Monitoring and evaluation of malaria control in pregnancy is essential for assessing the efficacy and effectiveness of health interventions aimed at reducing the major burden of this disease on women living in endemic areas. Yet there is no currently integrated strategic approach on how this should be achieved. Malaria control in pregnancy is formulated in relation to epidemiological patterns of exposure.