Multienzyme Complexes

Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Aging is characterized by accumulation of potentially harmful altered proteins that could lead to gradual deterioration of cellular functions and eventually result in increased probability of death. Metabolic turnover of proteins thus plays an essential role in maintaining the life of an organism. In this article we summarize our current knowledge on age-related changes in protein turnover with special reference to degradation. Increase in half-life of proteins with advancing age is well documented.

Author(s): 
Goto, S.
Takahashi, R.
Kumiyama, A. A.
Rad·k, Z.
Hayashi, T.
Takenouchi, M.
Abe, R.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate persistence of several Plasmodium antigens in pregnant women after treatment and compare diagnostics during treatment follow-up. METHODS: Thirty-two pregnant women (N = 32) with confirmed malaria infection by a histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and microscopy were followed for 28 days after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).

Author(s): 
Kattenberg, Johanna H.
Tahita, Christian M.
Versteeg, Inge A. J.
Tinto, Halidou
Traore-Coulibaly, Maminata
Schallig, Henk D. F. H.
Mens, Petra F.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

The formation of polyglutamine-containing aggregates and inclusions are hallmarks of pathogenesis in Huntington's disease that can be recapitulated in model systems. Although the contribution of inclusions to pathogenesis is unclear, cell-based assays can be used to screen for chemical compounds that affect aggregation and may provide therapeutic benefit. We have developed inducible PC12 cell-culture models to screen for loss of visible aggregates.

Author(s): 
Apostol, Barbara L.
Kazantsev, Alexsey
Raffioni, Simona
Illes, Katalin
Pallos, Judit
Bodai, Laszlo
Slepko, Natalia
Bear, James E.
Gertler, Frank B.
Hersch, Steven
Housman, David E.
Marsh, J. Lawrence
Thompson, Leslie Michels
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Pathology

Clinical use of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors such as ritonavir may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine the effects and molecular mechanisms of ritonavir on cholesterol efflux from human macrophage-derived foam cells, which is a critical factor of atherogenesis. Human THP-1 monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were preincubated with acetylated low-density lipoprotein and [(3)H]cholesterol to form foam cells, which were then treated with apolipoprotein A-I for cholesterol efflux assay.

Author(s): 
Wang, Xinwen
Mu, Hong
Chai, Hong
Liao, Dan
Yao, Qizhi
Chen, Changyi
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Berberine, a botanical alkaloid used to control blood glucose in type 2 diabetes in China, has recently been reported to activate AMPK. However, it is not clear how AMPK is activated by berberine. In this study, activity and action mechanism of berberine were investigated in vivo and in vitro. In dietary obese rats, berberine increased insulin sensitivity after 5-wk administration. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were decreased by 46 and 48%, respectively, in the rats.

Author(s): 
Yin, Jun
Gao, Zhanguo
Liu, Dong
Liu, Zhijun
Ye, Jianping
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in allowing cells to adapt to nutrient deprivation in vitro. This link between AMPK activity and nutritional status has raised the possibility that AMPK plays a role in the metabolic adaptation to acute and chronic nutritional stress. However, the effects of nutritional stress on AMPK activity in vivo have not been systematically evaluated.

Author(s): 
Gonzalez, Asensio A.
Kumar, Reetu
Mulligan, Jacob D.
Davis, Ashley J.
Weindruch, Richard
Saupe, Kurt W.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

Dietary energy restriction (DER) is a potent inhibitor of carcinogenesis, but chronic DER in human populations is difficult to sustain. Consequently, interest exists in identifying energy restriction mimetic agents (ERMAs), agents that provide the health benefits of DER without reducing caloric intake. The selection of a candidate ERMAs for this study was based on evidence that DER inhibits carcinogenesis by limiting glucose availability. The study objective was to determine if 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), a glucose analogue that blocks its metabolism, would inhibit mammary carcinogenesis.

Author(s): 
Zhu, Zongjian
Jiang, Weiqin
McGinley, John N.
Thompson, Henry J.
Publication Title: 
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Energy conservation directed at accelerating body fat recovery (or catch-up fat) contributes to obesity relapse after slimming and to excess fat gain during catch-up growth after malnutrition.

Author(s): 
Summermatter, S.
Mainieri, D.
Russell, A. P.
Seydoux, J.
Montani, J. P.
Buchala, A.
Solinas, G.
Dulloo, A. G.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Pharmacology

The dynamic regulation of the structure, function and turnover of mitochondria is recognized as an immutable control node maintaining cellular integrity and homeostasis. The term 'mitohormesis' has recently been coined to describe the adaptive reprogramming of mitochondrial biology in response to low levels of metabolic substrate deprivation to augment subsequent mitochondrial and cellular tolerance to biological stress.

Author(s): 
Schwartz, Daniel R.
Sack, Michael N.
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Glycyrrhizae radix is used to treat abdominal pain as a component of shakuyakukanzoto (shaoyao-gancao-tang), a traditional Chinese medicine formulation. Previously, we have reported the isolation of glycycoumarin as a potent antispasmodic with an IC50 value of 2.93+/-0.94 microM for carbamylcholine (CCh)-induced contraction of mouse jejunum from an aqueous extract of Glycyrrhizae radix (licorice), and clarified that its mechanism of action involves inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3.

Author(s): 
Sato, Yuji
He, Ju-Xiu
Nagai, Hidemasa
Tani, Tadato
Akao, Teruaki
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