CONTEXT: Triphala, an Indian Ayurvedic herbal formulation which contains Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Combretaceae) and Emblica officinalis L. (Phyllanthaceae), is used for treating bowel-related complications, inflammatory disorders, and gastritis. OBJECTIVE: To determine the anti-arthritic effect of triphala in arthritis-induced rats. For comparison purpose, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was used.
BACKGROUND: Enhanced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity is present in people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the molecular mechanisms of GR sensitivity are not understood. Epigenetic factors have emerged as one potential mechanism that account for how trauma exposure leads to sustained PTSD symptoms given that PTSD develops in only a subset of trauma survivors.
Malarial pigment (natural haemozoin, HZ) is a ferriprotoporphyrin IX crystal produced by Plasmodium parasites after haemoglobin catabolism. HZ-fed human monocytes are functionally compromised, releasing increased amounts of pro-inflammatory molecules, including cytokines, chemokines and cytokine-related proteolytic enzyme Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), whose role in complicated malaria has been recently suggested. In a previous work HZ was shown to induce through TNFalpha production the release of monocytic lysozyme, an enzyme stored in gelatinase granules with MMP-9.
Six hens were intramuscularly (im) immunized once a week for 3 weeks using chicken egg white lysozyme (LS) as antigen. Antibody (immunoglobulin in yolk, IgY) ELISA values of 10(3)-fold diluted yolk were almost as high as 1.879 in the sixth week and maintained a value of 0.756 in the eighth week after the initial immunization treatment.
Ayurveda, the traditional Indian System of Medicine, deals with the theory of the three tridosha states (both physical and psychological): Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. They are the three major human constitutional types that both depend on psychological and physical characteristics. The Pitta state is described as a critical, discriminative, and rational psychological state of mind, while the Kapha state is described as being dominant for emotional stimuli. The Vata state is an intermediate unstable shifting state. The Pitta types are of average height and built with well developed musculature.
The skin is a highly accessible organ and thus provides an attractive immune environment for cost-effective, simple, and needle-free delivery of vaccines and immunomodulators. In this study, we pretreated mouse skin with an anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), for a short period of time (10 min) followed by epicutaneous vaccination with hen egg lysozyme antigen. We demonstrated for the first time that pretreatment of skin with surfactant SLS significantly enhances the production of antibody to hen egg lysozyme.
While there are many reports in the literature describing the attributes of specific applications of transgenic animals for agriculture, there are relatively few studies focusing on the fitness of the transgenic animals themselves. This work was designed to gather information on genetically modified food animals to determine if the presence of a transgene can impact general animal production traits.
To develop a gene therapy strategy for treating bovine mastitis, a new mammary-specific vector containing human lysozyme (hLYZ) cDNA and kanamycin resistance gene was constructed for intramammary expression and clinical studies. After one time acupuncture or intracisternal infusion of healthy cows with 400 microg of the p215C3LYZ vector, over 2.0 microg/ml of rhLYZ could be detected by enzymatic assay for about 3 weeks in the milk samples.