Effects of ifenprodil tartrate, a potent vasodilator, on the autonomic, peripheral and central nerve system were studied in experimental animals. In isolated vas deferens of guinea pigs, the contraction in response to noradrenaline and sympathetic nerve stimulation was competetively antagonized by ifenprodil 10(-7)--10(-5) M (pA2: 7.69 against noradrenaline). Ifenprodil (50 approximately 1,000 mug/kg i.v.) inhibited the contraction of cat nictitating membrane and dog urinary bladder induced by sympathetic nerve stimulation.
Substituted benzylamide derivatives of amino acylamide (compound A,B,C, & D) were found to be less potent local anaesthetics than lignocaine and procaine. However, the four compounds exhibited sedation without ptosis and reduced spontaneous locomotor activity better than methaqualone. Compound A alone antagonised methylamphetamine induced hypermotor activity. The test compounds potentiated hexobarbitone induced hypnosis. Three compounds antagonised calcium induced stoppage of isolated heart of frog.
KB-509, a new derivative of benzodiazepines, increased locomotor activities of mice in doses of 8-32 mg/kg (p.o.) and a decrease occurred with higher doses. This drug was 3-6 and 1-2 times more potent than diazepam (DZP) and nitrazepam (NZP), respectively, in anticonvulsant (anti-pentylenetetrazol, bemegride, strychnine) activities, antiaggressive activity and potentiation of chlorprothixene-induced hypnosis in mice.
Aqueous extract of the root of P. vulgare (PV) produced CNS depressant effect. It decreased the spontaneous motor activity, prolonged the pentobarbitone induced hypnosis, reduced body temperature and increased the reaction time to pain stimuli. PV also caused prevention against supramaximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. PV showed a positive inotropic and chronotropic effect on perfused frog heart and caused hypotension and tachycardia in anaesthetised dogs. The effects were blocked by propranolol.
EPA-E, even at 3,000 mg/kg, p.o., did not affect the general behaviors, spontaneous locomotor activities, pentobarbital hypnosis and body temperature; and it did not elicit anticonvulsant, analgesic and muscle relaxant actions. It had no influence on spontaneous EEG activities, even at 3,000 mg/kg, i.d. EPA-E at concentrations up to 10(-4) M, did not affect the tonus or agonist-induced contraction of the isolated ileum, trachea, fundus and vas deferens. EPA-E had no influence on the spontaneous movement of isolated ileum or uterus.
Azuletil sodium (AZE, 100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not affect the general behaviors, spontaneous motor activity, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis and body temperature. Furthermore, it did not elicit anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant actions. However, AZE (300 mg/kg, p.o.) elicited a stiff gate and slightly inhibited the spontaneous motor activity and electroshock-induced convulsions. It had no influence on spontaneous EEG activities, even at 30 mg/kg, i.v. AZE inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing moderately at doses above 100 mg/kg.
Pharmacological effects of a new vasodilator, flosequinan (7-fluoro-1-methyl-3-(methylsulfinyl)-4(1H)-quinolone, BTS 49 465, CAS 76568-02-0) on the central nervous system, somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system and smooth muscle, digestive system and miscellaneous organs were investigated. 1. The central nervous system: Flosequinan inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing at doses of more than 30 mg/kg p.o. and decreased body temperature and tended to decrease spontaneous movement slightly in mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o.
The general pharmacological properties of YJA 20379-1 (2-amino-4,5-dihydro-8-phenylimidazo[2,1-b]thiazolo[4,5-g]benzo thi azole), a novel proton pump inhibitor with antiulcer activities, were investigated in mice, rats, guinea pig and rabbits. YJA 20379-1 at oral doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg did not affect the general behaviour, hexobarbital hypnosis, motor coordination and body temperature in mice. The drug does not have analgesic and anticonvulsant action at 200 mg/kg p.o. The locomotor activity was not affected at 100 mg/kg p.o., but at 200 mg/kg, the activity was suppressed.
The general pharmacological properties of YJA20379-8 (3-butyryl-4-[(R)-1-methylbenzylamino]-8-ethoxy-1,7-naphthyridine, CAS 187654-40-6), a new H+/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor with anti-ulcer activities, were investigated in mice, rats and guinea pigs. YJA20379-8 at oral doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg did not affect the locomotor activity, hexobarbital hypnosis and motor coordination in mice. The drug did not have analgesic action and anticonvulsant action at the doses of 100 mg/kg p.o. The respiration and blood pressure were not affected at 10 mg/kg i.v. in rats.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
The assumption by aromatherapists that essential oils are more beneficial when applied as mixes of two or more was tested using several in vitro bioactivity parameters. These included assays against 25 different bacteria, pharmacological studies using a smooth muscle preparation (guinea-pig ileum) and also the predicted effect on the patient as a whole on the basis of chemical analysis (using gas chromatography). The results showed an enhancement in the antibacterial effect of some essential oils when used in mixes only when these were poor antibacterial agents on their own.