Muscle Spasticity

Publication Title: 
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association

CONTEXT: While numerous measures are available to assist physicians in assessing patients with cerebral palsy, there is a paucity of instruments that capture data relevant to osteopathic assessment. The lack of such tools limits the reach of research in key osteopathic indicators. METHODS: A structured objective form designed to assist osteopathic physicians in the evaluation of fascial restriction, restriction of spinal motion, and muscle spasticity was developed for use during osteopathic musculoskeletal structural examinations.

Author(s): 
Davis, Melinda F.
Worden, Katherine
Clawson, Diane
Meaney, F. John
Duncan, Burris
Publication Title: 
The Western Journal of Medicine

Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana.

Author(s): 
Marmor, J. B.
Publication Title: 
Drug and Alcohol Dependence

The use of smoked marijuana as a therapeutic agent is presently a matter of considerable debate in the United States. Many people suffering from a variety of disorders maintain that it is necessary for their adequate treatment. Yet, the evidence to support claims is insufficient for FDA approval. An interim solution is proposed which would allow patients referred by their physicians to participate in a 6-month program of legal marijuana availability, similar to the 'compassionate IND' program of a number of years ago.

Author(s): 
Hollister, L. E.
Publication Title: 
STEP perspective
Author(s): 
Schouten, J. T.
Publication Title: 
Neurology

To estimate the patterns and prevalence of cannabis use among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 220 patients were surveyed in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Seventy-two subjects (36%) reported ever having used cannabis for any purpose; 29 respondents (14%) reported continuing use of cannabis for symptom treatment. Medical cannabis use was associated with male gender, tobacco use, and recreational cannabis use. The symptoms reported by medical cannabis users to be most effectively relieved were stress, sleep, mood, stiffness/spasm, and pain.

Author(s): 
Clark, A. J.
Ware, M. A.
Yazer, E.
Murray, T. J.
Lynch, M. E.
Publication Title: 
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America

Marijuana contains over 60 different types of cannabinoids, which are its medicinally active ingredients. Cannabinoids have the capacity for neuromodulation--through direct, receptor-based mechanisms--at many levels within the nervous system, providing therapeutic properties that may be applicable to the treatment of neurologic disorders. These include antioxidation, neuroprotection, analgesia, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, modulation of glial cells, and tumor growth regulation.

Author(s): 
Carter, Gregory T.
Ugalde, Vivian
Publication Title: 
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America

This article reviews various physical modalities that have been used in spastic hypertonia, particularly superficial heat and cold, diathermies (ultrasound, microwave, and short-wave irradiation), electrical stimulation (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), implanted spinal stimulation (rectal stimulation), and massage (deep friction, superficial contact). The duration of the effects of most physical therapies is relatively short (e.g., cooling, heating, and massage), which often may limit their application to immediate prestretch or pre-exercise periods.

Author(s): 
Gracies, J. M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Oral Science

Trismus is a pathological condition of the muscles of mastication which commonly affects patients who have undergone dental procedures, oral surgery, and radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of dynamic splinting, a noninvasive modality to reduce trismus which occurred in a patient following multiple dental procedures. A 26 year old man of African descent was referred for severe trismus and pain following three dental procedures on the lower right molars.

Author(s): 
Shulman, David H.
Shipman, Barry
Willis, Frank B.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Rehabilitation

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to investigate the comparative effects of massage therapy and exercise therapy on patients with multiple sclerosis. The secondary aim was to investigate whether combination of both massage and exercise has an additive effect. DESIGN: Randomized controlled pilot trial with repeated measurements and blinded assessments. SETTING: Local Multiple Sclerosis Society.

Author(s): 
Negahban, Hossein
Rezaie, Solmaz
Goharpey, Shahin
Publication Title: 
Palliative Medicine

In this case study we describe a dual approach to the palliation of difficult muscle spasms using intrathecal baclofen via a fully implanted system, together with the homeopathic approach to symptom control. The homeopathy is seen to complement rather than to replace conventional prescribing and using both approaches together appears to have avoided the necessity for increasing drug doses and to have minimized side-effects.

Author(s): 
Thompson, E.
Hicks, F.

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