Muscle Spindles

Publication Title: 
The Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Spinal manipulation (SM) is a form of manual therapy used clinically to treat patients with low back and neck pain. The most common form of this maneuver is characterized as a high-velocity (duration <150 ms), low-amplitude (segmental translation <2 mm, rotation <4 degrees , and applied force 220-889 N) impulse thrust (high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation [HVLA-SM]).

Author(s): 
Pickar, Joel G.
Sung, Paul S.
Kang, Yu-Ming
Ge, Weiqing
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

Muscle spindles contribute to sensorimotor control by supplying feedback regarding muscle length and consequently information about joint position. While substantial study has been devoted to determining the position sensitivity of spindles in limb muscles, there appears to be no data on their sensitivity in the low back. We determined the relationship between lumbar paraspinal muscle spindle discharge and paraspinal muscle lengthening estimated from controlled cranialward movement of the L(6) vertebra in anesthetized cats.

Author(s): 
Cao, Dong-Yuan
Pickar, Joel G.
Ge, Weiginq
Ianuzzi, Allyson
Khalsa, Partap S.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Brain Research

Increasing our knowledge regarding intrafusal fiber distribution and physiology of paraspinal proprioceptors may provide key insights regarding proprioceptive deficits in trunk control associated with low back pain and lead to more effective clinical intervention. The use of vertebral movement as a means to reliably stretch paraspinal muscles would greatly facilitate physiological study of paraspinal muscle proprioceptors where muscle tendon isolation is either very difficult or impossible.

Author(s): 
Reed, William R.
Cao, Dong-Yuan
Ge, Weiqing
Pickar, Joel G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: Mechanical characteristics of high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulations (HVLA-SMs) can vary. Sustained changes in peripheral neuronal signaling due to altered load transmission to a sensory receptor's local mechanical environment are often considered a mechanism contributing to the therapeutic effects of spinal manipulation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether variation in an HVLA-SM's thrust amplitude and duration alters the neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position.

Author(s): 
Cao, Dong-Yuan
Reed, William R.
Long, Cynthia R.
Kawchuk, Gregory N.
Pickar, Joel G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVES: Manual therapy practitioners commonly assess lumbar intervertebral mobility before deciding treatment regimens. Changes in mechanoreceptor activity during the manipulative thrust are theorized to be an underlying mechanism of spinal manipulation (SM) efficacy. The objective of this study was to determine if facet fixation or facetectomy at a single lumbar level alters muscle spindle activity during 5 SM thrust durations in an animal model. METHODS: Spinal stiffness was determined using the slope of a force-displacement curve.

Author(s): 
Reed, William R.
Long, Cynthia R.
Pickar, Joel G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine how the preload that precedes a high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) affects muscle spindle input from lumbar paraspinal muscles both during and after the HVLA-SM. METHODS: Primary afferent activity from muscle spindles in lumbar paraspinal muscles were recorded from the L6 dorsal root in anesthetized cats.

Author(s): 
Reed, William R.
Long, Cynthia R.
Kawchuk, Gregory N.
Pickar, Joel G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of chiropractic patients receive high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) as part of their chiropractic care. The purpose of the current study was determine how the duration of a lumbar HVLA-SM given under force control affects the discharge of paraspinal muscle spindle afferents. METHODS: Experiments were performed on deeply anesthetized adult cats treated in accordance with the Guiding Principles in the Care and Use of Animals approved by the American Physiological Society. Muscle spindle afferents were identified in the dorsal roots.

Author(s): 
Pickar, Joel G.
Kang, Yu-Ming
Publication Title: 
Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

OBJECTIVE: To study the immediate sensorimotor neurophysiological effects of cervical spine manipulation using somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). METHODS: Twelve subjects with a history of reoccurring neck stiffness and/or neck pain, but no acute symptoms at the time of the study were invited to participate in the study. An additional twelve subjects participated in a passive head movement control experiment.

Author(s): 
Haavik-Taylor, Heidi
Murphy, Bernadette
Publication Title: 
The Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Spinal manipulation (SM) is a form of manual therapy used clinically to treat patients with low back and neck pain. The most common form of this maneuver is characterized as a high-velocity (duration <150 ms), low-amplitude (segmental translation <2 mm, rotation <4 degrees , and applied force 220-889 N) impulse thrust (high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation [HVLA-SM]).

Author(s): 
Pickar, Joel G.
Sung, Paul S.
Kang, Yu-Ming
Ge, Weiqing
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

Muscle spindles contribute to sensorimotor control by supplying feedback regarding muscle length and consequently information about joint position. While substantial study has been devoted to determining the position sensitivity of spindles in limb muscles, there appears to be no data on their sensitivity in the low back. We determined the relationship between lumbar paraspinal muscle spindle discharge and paraspinal muscle lengthening estimated from controlled cranialward movement of the L(6) vertebra in anesthetized cats.

Author(s): 
Cao, Dong-Yuan
Pickar, Joel G.
Ge, Weiginq
Ianuzzi, Allyson
Khalsa, Partap S.

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