Mutagenesis

Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

The fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz. (T. chebula), which is a member of the Combfreetaceae family, is used widely in Asian countries as a traditional folk medicine, and its extract has been reported to be an anticancer, antidiabetic and anticaries agent. In our previous study, chebulic acid isolated from T. chebula extract was confirmed to show antioxidant activity and protective action against endothelial cell dysfunction. In order to support the safety-in-use of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble portion of a T.

Author(s): 
Kim, Ji-hoon
Koo, Yun-chang
Hong, Chung-Oui
Yang, Sung-Yong
Jun, Woojin
Lee, Kwang-Won
Publication Title: 
Nature

The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis.

Author(s): 
Kim, Eun Bae
Fang, Xiaodong
Fushan, Alexey A.
Huang, Zhiyong
Lobanov, Alexei V.
Han, Lijuan
Marino, Stefano M.
Sun, Xiaoqing
Turanov, Anton A.
Yang, Pengcheng
Yim, Sun Hee
Zhao, Xiang
Kasaikina, Marina V.
Stoletzki, Nina
Peng, Chunfang
Polak, Paz
Xiong, Zhiqiang
Kiezun, Adam
Zhu, Yabing
Chen, Yuanxin
Kryukov, Gregory V.
Zhang, Qiang
Peshkin, Leonid
Yang, Lan
Bronson, Roderick T.
Buffenstein, Rochelle
Wang, Bo
Han, Changlei
Li, Qiye
Chen, Li
Zhao, Wei
Sunyaev, Shamil R.
Park, Thomas J.
Zhang, Guojie
Wang, Jun
Gladyshev, Vadim N.
Publication Title: 
Nature

Telomeres, the specialized DNA-protein structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, are required for chromosomal stability and integrity. Regulation of the overall length of the telomeric DNA repeat tract is likely to be a key requirement for its various biological roles. We have studied telomere length regulation in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, which has long (25 base pairs) homogeneous telomeric repeat units that make it highly suitable for telomere studies.

Author(s): 
Krauskopf, A.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Genetics

The abundant rDNA minichromosome of Tetrahymena thermophila is generated by a series of developmentally controlled processing steps, termed rDNA maturation, during the formation of the new macronucleus in conjugating cells. rDNA maturation involves excision of a region encoding the single copy rRNA gene (rDNA) from its germline location, rearrangement of the rDNA into a palindromic minichromosome, de novo telomere addition, and amplification to approximately 10(4) copies. The rDNA is maintained at this high level in vegetatively growing cells.

Author(s): 
Kapler, G. M.
Orias, E.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Genetics

The abundant rDNA minichromosome of Tetrahymena thermophila is generated by a series of developmentally controlled processing steps, termed rDNA maturation, during the formation of the new macronucleus in conjugating cells. rDNA maturation involves excision of a region encoding the single copy rRNA gene (rDNA) from its germline location, rearrangement of the rDNA into a palindromic minichromosome, de novo telomere addition, and amplification to approximately 10(4) copies. The rDNA is maintained at this high level in vegetatively growing cells.

Author(s): 
Kapler, G. M.
Orias, E.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Nature

Explaining the rise and maintenance of cooperation is central to our understanding of biological systems and human societies. When an individual's cooperativeness is used by other individuals as a choice criterion, there can be competition to be more generous than others, a situation called competitive altruism. The evolution of cooperation between non-relatives can then be driven by a positive feedback between increasing levels of cooperativeness and choosiness.

Author(s): 
McNamara, John M.
Barta, Zoltan
Fromhage, Lutz
Houston, Alasdair I.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Toxoplasma gondii infection, like malaria, is sensitive to inhibition by artemisinin (ART). Mechanisms of action for ART in malaria treatment have been proposed, but little is known about its effects in T. gondii infection. To better understand its inhibitory effects on T. gondii, mutants resistant to ART were selected by progressive culture in permissive levels of the drug. Five clonal isolates were established and characterized.

Author(s): 
Berens, R. L.
Krug, E. C.
Nash, P. B.
Curiel, T. J.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Artemisinin is a plant sesquiterpene lactone that has become an important drug for combating malaria, especially in regions where resistance to other drugs is widespread. While the mechanism of action is debated, artemisinin has been reported to inhibit the sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) in the malaria parasite. Artemisinin is also effective against Toxoplasma in vitro and in vivo, although it is less potent and, hence, is generally not used therapeutically to treat toxoplasmosis.

Author(s): 
Nagamune, Kisaburo
Moreno, Silvia N. J.
Sibley, L. David
Publication Title: 
Trends in genetics: TIG

The ability of Drosophila genetics to reveal new insights into human neurodegenerative disease is highlighted not only by mutants in flies that show neuronal cell loss, but also by targeted expression of human disease genes in the fly. Moreover, study of Drosophila homologs of various human disease genes provides new insight into fundamental aspects of protein function. These recent findings confirm the remarkable homology of gene function in flies when compared with humans.

Author(s): 
Fortini, M. E.
Bonini, N. M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Our recent study has shown that betaA3-crystallin along with betaB1- and betaB2-crystallins were part of high molecular weight complex obtained from young, old, and cataractous lenses suggesting potential interactions between alpha- and beta-crystallins (Srivastava, O. P., Srivastava, K., and Chaves, J. M. (2008) Mol. Vis. 14, 1872-1885). To investigate this further, this study was carried out to determine the interaction sites of betaA3-crystallin with alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins.

Author(s): 
Gupta, Ratna
Srivastava, Om P.

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