Mutagenicity Tests

Publication Title: 
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society

It is well documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the aetiology of age related diseases. Over the last decades, strong efforts have been made to identify antioxidants in human foods and numerous promising compounds have been detected which are used for the production of supplements and functional foods. The present paper describes the advantages and limitations of methods which are currently used for the identification of antioxidants. Numerous in vitro methods are available which are easy to perform and largely used in screening trials.

Author(s): 
Hoelzl, C.
Bichler, J.
Ferk, F.
Simic, T.
Nersesyan, A.
Elbling, L.
Ehrlich, V.
Chakraborty, A.
Knasm¸ller, S.
Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Essential oils from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree oil) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender oil) are commonly used to treat minor health problems. Tea-tree oil possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and is increasingly used for skin problems. Lavender oil, traditionally used as an antiseptic agent, is now predominantly used as a relaxant, carminative, and sedative in aromatherapy. Despite their growing use no data are available on their mutagenic potential.

Author(s): 
Evandri, M. G.
Battinelli, L.
Daniele, C.
Mastrangelo, S.
Bolle, P.
Mazzanti, G.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Associations of plants have been widely used, for centuries, in Ayurveda and in Chinese medicine and have been increasingly acknowledged in Western medicine. The objective of this study is to assess the level of toxicity of an association of three plants: Crataegus oxyacantha, Passiflora incarnata, and Valeriana officinalis (CPV extract). This association was administered to rats, mice, and dogs, both acute and chronically for 180 days. The tests used in the acute experiments were: observational pharmacological screening, LD(50), motor coordination and motor activity.

Author(s): 
Tabach, Ricardo
Rodrigues, Eliana
Carlini, E. A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology: Official Organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer

Terminalia arjuna is an important medicinal plants widely used in the preparation of Ayurvedic formulations used against several ailments. The present investigation was aimed at the fractionation of crude extracts from the bark of T. arjuna in order to isolate and purify the antimutagenic factors present. The antimutagenicity assay was performed to check the modulatory effect of these fractions against NPD, sodium azide, and 2AF, using the Ames Salmonella his+ reversion assay.

Author(s): 
Kaur, S.
Grover, I. S.
Kumar, S.
Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Salacia oblonga has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine for the oral treatment of diabetes. The root extract has been shown to inhibit the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases, therefore S. oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the potential genotoxicity of a S.

Author(s): 
Flammang, A. M.
Erexson, G. L.
Mecchi, M. S.
Murli, H.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Associations of plants have been widely used, for centuries, in Ayurveda and in Chinese medicine and have been increasingly acknowledged in Western medicine. The objective of this study is to assess the level of toxicity of an association of three plants: Crataegus oxyacantha, Passiflora incarnata, and Valeriana officinalis (CPV extract). This association was administered to rats, mice, and dogs, both acute and chronically for 180 days. The tests used in the acute experiments were: observational pharmacological screening, LD(50), motor coordination and motor activity.

Author(s): 
Tabach, Ricardo
Rodrigues, Eliana
Carlini, E. A.
Publication Title: 
Toxicology in vitro: an international journal published in association with BIBRA

Tinospora cordifolia is one of the indispensable medicinal plants used in veterinary folk medicine/Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of diverse diseases and recommended for improving the immune system by means of body resistance. In the current study, we evaluated the genotoxic risk of the aqueous extract of T. cordifolia (TC) in a battery of four different genotoxicity tests viz., Ames, in vitro chromosome aberration (CA), rodent bone marrow micronucleus (MN), and Comet assay.

Author(s): 
Chandrasekaran, C. V.
Mathuram, L. N.
Daivasigamani, Prabhu
Bhatnagar, Upendra
Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Rubia cordifolia L. (Rubiaceae) is an important medicinal plant used in the Ayurvedic medicinal system. Its use as a traditional therapeutic has been related to the treatment of skin disorders and cancer. Besides its medicinal value, anthraquinones from this plant are used as natural food colourants and as natural hair dyes. Dyes derived from natural sources have emerged as important alternatives to synthetic dyes. Alizarin (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone) was isolated and characterized from R. cordifolia L. and evaluated for its antigenotoxic potential against a battery of mutagens viz.

Author(s): 
Kaur, Prabhjit
Chandel, Madhu
Kumar, Subodh
Kumar, Neeraj
Singh, Bikram
Kaur, Satwinderjeet
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The decoction of Terminalia chebula fruit is an ayurvedic remedy whose prolonged oral administration is prized as a generic intestinal and hepatic detoxifying agent. Its administration is suggested also under the perspective of a reduced risk of cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the phytochemical profile and the chemopreventive potential of Terminalia chebula fruit decoction prepared according to the ayurvedic decoction recipe.

Author(s): 
Pellati, Federica
Bruni, Renato
Righi, Davide
Grandini, Alessandro
Tognolini, Massimilano
Pio Prencipe, Francesco
Poli, Ferruccio
Benvenuti, Stefania
Del Rio, Daniele
Rossi, Damiano
Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pathology, gross necropsy and histology.

Author(s): 
Schmidt, Barbara M.
Ilic, Nebojsa
Poulev, Alexander
Raskin, Ilya

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