Myanmar

Publication Title: 
Medical Anthropology

In narratives of displaced Karen women from Burma, both before and after resettlement in Australia, women framed their birthing experiences with those of persecution and displacement. Although grateful for the security of resettlement in Australia, social inclusion was negligible and women's birthing experiences occurred in that context. Women described the impact of the lack of interpreting services in Australian hospitals and an absence of personal and communal care that they expected.

Author(s): 
Niner, Sara
Kokanovic, Renata
Cuthbert, Denise
Publication Title: 
Singapore Medical Journal

The psychiatric morbidity following hysterectomy has received increasing attention. One of the sequelae of hysterectomy has been a brief, acute psychosis with excellent outcome, the etiology and pathomechanism of which is still unclear. Two Chinese patients born of Southeast Asian origin who manifested brief, acute psychosis following hysterectomy are presented. Therapy comprised drug treatment with low dose antipsychotics and benzodiazepines coupled with hypnosis and marital therapy to explore and treat the underlying pathology. Both psychotic states resolved.

Author(s): 
Tsoh, J. M.
Leung, H. C.
Ungvari, G. S.
Lee, D. T.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Three studies were carried out to determine the need, acceptability, and efficacy of adding mefloquine to artemisinin derivatives (AD) for the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The first was a retrospective study of 255 basic health workers which showed that their recommendation of AD to patients depended on their level of training. None of the paramedics/midwives and only 9% of 129 doctors had prescribed AD, and no one had recommended AD in combination with mefloquine; 72% of patients used courses that were too short for parasitological cure.

Author(s): 
Shwe, T.
Lwin, M.
Aung, S.
Publication Title: 
Blood

Ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA)-positive, Plasmodium falciparum-negative red blood cells (RBCs) are cells from which the malaria parasite has been removed by the host without the destruction of the erythrocyte ("pitting"). The survival of RESA-RBCs in vivo was assessed in 14 severe and 6 uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients.

Author(s): 
Newton, P. N.
Chotivanich, K.
Chierakul, W.
Ruangveerayuth, R.
Teerapong, P.
Silamut, K.
Looareesuwan, S.
White, N. J.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

Multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria is widespread in Asia. In Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam the national protocols have changed largely to artesunate combined treatment regimens but elsewhere in East and South Asia chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) are still widely recommended by national malaria control programmes.

Author(s): 
Smithuis, Frank
Shahmanesh, Maryam
Kyaw, Moe Kyaw
Savran, Olivia
Lwin, Saw
White, Nicholas J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Combinations are set to become the mainstay in treatment and prophylaxis of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. Various antimalarials have been implicated in cardiotoxicity via prolongation of the QTc interval. Atovaquone-proguanil is an effective and increasingly popular antimalarial choice when used alone or with artesunate in areas of drug resistance. We report the results of an investigation carried out on the Thai-Burmese border in 42 patients randomized to receive either atovaquone-proguanil or atovaquone-proguanil-artesunate for three days.

Author(s): 
Gupta, Ravindra K.
van Vugt, Michèle
Paiphun, Lucy
Slight, Thra
Looareesuwan, Sornchai
White, Nicholas J.
Nosten, François
Publication Title: 
The Lancet. Infectious Diseases

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) is recommended as first-line treatment of falciparum malaria throughout the world, and fixed-dose combinations are preferred by WHO; whether a single gametocytocidal dose of primaquine should be added is unknown. We aimed to compare effectiveness of four fixed-dose ACTs and a loose tablet combination of artesunate and mefloquine, and assess the addition of a single gametocytocidal dose of primaquine.

Author(s): 
Smithuis, Frank
Kyaw, Moe Kyaw
Phe, Ohn
Win, Thein
Aung, Pyay Phyo
Oo, Aung Pyay Phyo
Naing, Arkar Linn
Nyo, Mya Yee
Myint, Naing Zaw Htun
Imwong, Mallika
Ashley, Elizabeth
Lee, Sue J.
White, Nicholas J.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Declining in clinical efficacy of artesunate-mefloquine combination has been documented in areas along the eastern border (Thai-Cambodian) of Thailand. In the present study, the clinical efficacy of the three-day combination regimen of artesunate-mefloquine as first-line treatment for acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Thailand was monitored in an area along the western border (Thai-Myanmar) of the country.

Author(s): 
Na-Bangchang, Kesara
Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai
Mahamad, Poonuch
Ruengweerayut, Kulaya
Chaijaroenkul, Wanna
Publication Title: 
PLoS neglected tropical diseases

BACKGROUND: Fever in pregnancy is dangerous for both mother and foetus. In the 1980's malaria was the leading cause of death in pregnant women in refugee camps on the Thai-Burmese border. Artemisinin combination therapy has significantly reduced the incidence of malaria in the population. The remaining causes of fever in pregnancy are not well documented. METHODOLOGY: Pregnant women attending antenatal care, where weekly screening for malaria is routine, were invited to have a comprehensive clinical and laboratory screen if they had fever.

Author(s): 
McGready, Rose
Ashley, Elizabeth A.
Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn
Tan, Saw Oo
Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay
Viladpai-Nguen, Samuel Jacher
Jesadapanpong, Wilarat
Blacksell, Stuart D.
Peacock, Sharon J.
Paris, Daniel H.
Day, Nicholas P.
Singhasivanon, Pratap
White, Nicholas J.
Nosten, François
Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria commonly follows treatment of falciparum malaria in regions of co-endemicity. This is an important cause of preventable morbidity. METHODS: We examined the factors contributing to the risk of recurrence of P. vivax infection after treatment of acute falciparum malaria in a series of clinical trials conducted on the Thai-Myanmar border from 1991 through 2005.

Author(s): 
Douglas, Nicholas M.
Nosten, François
Ashley, Elizabeth A.
Phaiphun, Lucy
van Vugt, Michèle
Singhasivanon, Pratap
White, Nicholas J.
Price, Ric N.

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