Triphala, a mixture of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellirica, containing ingredients from plant origin, is often prone to microbial contamination. A high level of microbial contamination was observed in Triphala samples obtained from different sources. On gamma radiation processing, a sharp decline in log CFU was observed with increasing radiation dose and a complete decontamination at 5 kGy. Average D10 value for total aerobic and fungal counts were observed to be 0.55 +/- 0.073 kGy and 0.94 +/- 0.043 kGy, respectively.
Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of food grains, feeds, medicinal herbs, and spices, posing as health threat to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to screen medicinal herbs and spices for fungi and mycotoxin contamination and evaluate their safety. Sixty-three samples were examined for fungal contamination and fungal load determined using standard microbiological method. Aflatoxin and citrinin were detected using thin layer chromatography and high-performance chromatography technique.
The neuropharmacological profile of the total fungal extract of F. moniliforme (FM) has been investigated. FM produced dose related decrease in spontaneous motor activity (SMA) and exploratory activity, potentiated pentobarbitone hypnosis and the anticonvulsant actions of phenobarbitone and phenytoin against MES seizures, potentiated PTZ and tryptamine seizures, antagonised reserpine induced syndrome, attenuated tetrabenazine and morphine induced catalepsy and potentiated haloperidol catalepsy. FM showed per se antinociceptive activity and potentiated morphine analgesia.
The neuropharmacological activity profile of total fungal extract of F. oxysporum (FO) was investigated. FO enhanced spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behaviour and reduced pentobarbitone hypnosis. It had per se anticonvulsant action against maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and potentiated phenobarbitone and phenytoin in MES and also potentiated pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) convulsion. It antagonised morphine, tetrabenazine and haloperidol catalepsy. FO did not show per se analgesia or potentiation of morphine antinociception in mice, while both effects were present in rats.
Twenty-eight incapacitated individuals (average 43 years old, 7 males, 21 females, range 12-70) exposed to molds and mycotoxins were studied and treated with a protocol of cleaning up or changing their environment to be mold free.