Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The neuropathological sequelae of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning cannot be explained by hypoxic stress alone. CO poisoning also causes adduct formation between myelin basic protein (MBP) and malonylaldehyde, a reactive product of lipid peroxidation, resulting in an immunological cascade. MBP loses its normal cationic characteristics, and antibody recognition of MBP is altered. Immunohistochemical evidence of degraded MBP occurs in brain over days, along with influx of macrophages and CD-4 lymphocytes.
Neurological sequelae (NS) is a common complication of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and structural alterations of myelin basic protein have been proven to initiate immunological reactions leading to NS. To determine whether xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) participates in the pathophysiology of CO-mediated NS, we examined myelin basic protein in CO poisoned XOR-depleted rats and performed radial maze studies to evaluate the alteration of cognitive function.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is dramatically but transiently compromised in the cerebella of myelin basic protein immunized mice at least 1 week prior to the development of the paralytic phase of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Treatment of mice with the peroxynitrite-dependent radical scavenger uric acid (UA) during the first week after immunization blocks the early increase in cerebellar BBB permeability and the subsequent development of clinical signs of EAE.
Myelin basic protein (MBP)-reactive T cells may play an important role in the autoimmune pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). MBP-reactive T cells can be specifically targeted by T cell vaccination, a procedure whereby MS patients are immunized with attenuated autologous MBP reactive T cells. T cell vaccination induces immune responses to the vaccine cells together with a depletion of MBP reactive T cells. Forty-nine MS patients were treated with T cell vaccination in an extended phase I trial to study the safety, immune responses and clinical effects of T cell vaccination.
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
The Long-Evans shaker (les) rat has a mutation in myelin basic protein that results in severe CNS dysmyelination and subsequent demyelination during development. During this time, les oligodendrocytes accumulate cytoplasmic vesicles, including lysosomes and membrane-bound organelles. However, the mechanism and functional relevance behind these oligodendrocyte abnormalities in les have not been investigated. Using high-magnification electron microscopy, we identified the accumulations in les oligodendrocytes as early and late autophagosomes.