Myelin Sheath

Publication Title: 
Human Molecular Genetics

The CISD2 gene, which is an evolutionarily conserved novel gene, encodes a transmembrane protein primarily associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane. Significantly, the CISD2 gene is located within the candidate region on chromosome 4q where a genetic component for human longevity has been mapped. Previously, we have shown that Cisd2 deficiency shortens lifespan resulting in premature aging in mice. Additionally, an age-dependent decrease in Cisd2 expression has been detected during normal aging.

Author(s): 
Wu, Chia-Yu
Chen, Yi-Fan
Wang, Chih-Hao
Kao, Cheng-Heng
Zhuang, Hui-Wen
Chen, Chih-Cheng
Chen, Liang-Kung
Kirby, Ralph
Wei, Yau-Huei
Tsai, Shih-Feng
Tsai, Ting-Fen
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Tibetan medicine integrates diet, lifestyle, herbs, and accessory therapies to increase health and longevity. A comparison of the three humor theory of Tibetan medicine and the three thermodynamic phase properties of myelin lipids exemplifies how integrating medical systems can increase understanding of complex chronic disabling conditions.

Author(s): 
Husted, Cynthia
Dhondup, Lobsang
Publication Title: 
Neurochemical Research

Impairment of oligodendroglia (OL)-dependent myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is a remarkable parallel recently identified in major psychiatric disorders and chronic drug abuse. Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies revealed myelin defects and microarray-profiling analysis demonstrated aberrant expression of myelin-related genes in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and cocaine addiction. However, the etiology underlying myelin impairment in these clinically distinct subjects remains elusive.

Author(s): 
Feng, Yue
Publication Title: 
Glia

Steroidal estrogens can regulate inflammatory immune responses and may be involved in the suppression of multiple sclerosis (MS) during pregnancy. However, the risks and side effects associated with steroidal estrogens may limit their usefulness for long-term MS therapy. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) could provide an alternative therapeutic strategy, because they behave as estrogen agonists in some tissues, but are either inert or behave like estrogen antagonists in other tissues.

Author(s): 
Bebo, Bruce F.
Dehghani, Babak
Foster, Scott
Kurniawan, Astrid
Lopez, Francisco J.
Sherman, Larry S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

An increase in CNS remyelination and a decrease in CNS inflammation are important steps to halt the progression of multiple sclerosis. Earlier studies have shown that gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, has anti-inflammatory properties.

Author(s): 
Jana, Malabendu
Mondal, Susanta
Gonzalez, Frank J.
Pahan, Kalipada
Publication Title: 
Experimental Neurology

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) results in white matter injury and hydrocephalus in premature infants. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs)-neuorcan, brevican, versican, aggrecan and phosphacan-are unregulated in the extracellular matrix after brain injury, and their degradation enhances plasticity of the brain. Therefore, we hypothesized that CSPG levels were elevated in the forebrain of premature infants with IVH and that in vivo degradation of CSPGs would enhance maturation of oligodendrocyte, augment myelination, promote neurological recovery, and minimize hydrocephalus.

Author(s): 
Vinukonda, Govindaiah
Zia, Muhammad T.
Bhimavarapu, Bala B. R.
Hu, Furong
Feinberg, Michelle
Bokhari, Aqiba
Ungvari, Zoltan
Fried, Victor A.
Ballabh, Praveen
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor, and the mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used analgesics. Interestingly, aspirin increased mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse and human astrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Aspirin induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) but not protein kinase C (PKC). H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated aspirin-induced expression of CNTF.

Author(s): 
Modi, Khushbu K.
Sendtner, Michael
Pahan, Kalipada
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) neuropathies linked to the misexpression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are progressive demyelinating disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In this study we asked whether dietary restriction by intermittent fasting (IF) could alleviate the neuropathic phenotype in the Trembler J (TrJ) mouse model of CMT1A. Our results show that neuropathic mice kept on a five month long IF regimen had improved locomotor performance compared to ad libitum (AL) fed littermates.

Author(s): 
Madorsky, Irina
Opalach, Katherine
Waber, Amanda
Verrier, Jonathan D.
Solmo, Chelsea
Foster, Thomas
Dunn, William A.
Notterpek, Lucia
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprises of an extensive network of connections that convey information between the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral organs. Long myelinated nerve fibers are particularly susceptible to age-related changes, as maintenance of the insulating glial membrane requires extensive synthesis and processing of many proteins.

Author(s): 
Lee, Sooyeon
Notterpek, Lucia
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

The Long-Evans shaker (les) rat has a mutation in myelin basic protein that results in severe CNS dysmyelination and subsequent demyelination during development. During this time, les oligodendrocytes accumulate cytoplasmic vesicles, including lysosomes and membrane-bound organelles. However, the mechanism and functional relevance behind these oligodendrocyte abnormalities in les have not been investigated. Using high-magnification electron microscopy, we identified the accumulations in les oligodendrocytes as early and late autophagosomes.

Author(s): 
Smith, Chelsey M.
Mayer, Joshua A.
Duncan, Ian D.

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