Myocardial Reperfusion Injury

Publication Title: 
Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine

Myocardial ischemia followed by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces irreversible damage to cardiac muscle. Medical treatment that effectively prevents I/R injury would alleviate the consequent development of cardiac remodeling and failure. Mechanisms that extend life span often make organisms resistant to stress, and an accumulation of such mechanisms may prevent aging and susceptibility to age-associated diseases. Sirtuins are a group of molecules involved in longevity and stress resistance.

Author(s): 
Yamamoto, Takanobu
Sadoshima, Junichi
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Bromelain (Br), a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity and has been shown to reduce blood viscosity, prevent the aggregation of blood platelets, and improve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a skeletal muscle model. We investigated the capacity of Br to limit myocardial injury in a global I/R model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control (PBS) and Br at 10 mg/kg in PBS administered via intraperitoneal injection (twice/day) for 15 consecutive days.

Author(s): 
Juhasz, Bela
Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh
Pant, Rima
Zhan, Lijun
Penumathsa, Suresh Varma
Secor, Eric R.
Srivastava, Sapna
Raychaudhuri, Utpal
Menon, Venugopal P.
Otani, Hajime
Thrall, Roger S.
Maulik, Nilanjana
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a promising cardioprotective treatment for cardiac arrest and acute myocardial infarction, but its cytoprotective mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we developed a murine cardiomyocyte model of ischemia-reperfusion injury to better determine the mechanisms of TH cardioprotection. We hypothesized that TH manipulates Akt, a survival kinase that mediates mitochondrial protection by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation.

Author(s): 
Shao, Zuo-Hui
Sharp, Willard W.
Wojcik, Kimberly R.
Li, Chang-Qing
Han, Mei
Chang, Wei-Tien
Ramachandran, Srinivasan
Li, Jing
Hamann, Kimm J.
Vanden Hoek, Terry L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American College of Cardiology

OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin on short- and long-term infarct size and left ventricular (LV) structure and function after permanent coronary occlusion (PCO) and the potential involvement of the protective protein kinase B (AKT)/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. BACKGROUND: (-)-epicatechin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive patients and limits infarct size in animal models of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, nothing is known about its effects on infarction after PCO.

Author(s): 
Yamazaki, Katrina Go
Taub, Pam R.
Barraza-Hidalgo, Maraliz
Rivas, Maria M.
Zambon, Alexander C.
Ceballos, Guillermo
Villarreal, Francisco J.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological reports: PR

Chromium picolinate [Cr(pic)(3)] is a nutritional supplement widely promoted to exert beneficial metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance. Frequent comorbidities in these individuals include systemic hypertension, abnormal vascular function and ischemic heart disease, but information on the effects of the supplement on these aspects is sparse. Utilizing male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we examined the potential impact of Cr(pic)(3) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).

Author(s): 
Abebe, Worku
Liu, Jun Yao
Wimborne, Hereward
Mozaffari, Mahmood S.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological reports: PR

Chromium picolinate [Cr(pic)(3)] is a nutritional supplement widely promoted to exert beneficial metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance. Frequent comorbidities in these individuals include systemic hypertension, abnormal vascular function and ischemic heart disease, but information on the effects of the supplement on these aspects is sparse. Utilizing male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we examined the potential impact of Cr(pic)(3) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).

Author(s): 
Abebe, Worku
Liu, Jun Yao
Wimborne, Hereward
Mozaffari, Mahmood S.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Ischemic preconditioning (PC) has been proposed as an endogenous form of protection against-ischemia reperfusion injury. We have shown that PC does not prevent postischemic dysfunction in the aging heart. This phenomenon could be due to the reduction of cardiac norepinephrine release, and it has also been previously demonstrated that age-related decrease of norepinephrine release from cardiac adrenergic nerves may be restored by caloric restriction.

Author(s): 
Abete, Pasquale
Testa, Gianluca
Ferrara, Nicola
de Santis, Domenico
Capaccio, Pina
Viati, Luisa
Calabrese, Claudio
Cacciatore, Francesco
Longobardi, Giancarlo
Condorelli, Mario
Napoli, Claudio
Rengo, Franco
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Pharmacology

The dynamic regulation of the structure, function and turnover of mitochondria is recognized as an immutable control node maintaining cellular integrity and homeostasis. The term 'mitohormesis' has recently been coined to describe the adaptive reprogramming of mitochondrial biology in response to low levels of metabolic substrate deprivation to augment subsequent mitochondrial and cellular tolerance to biological stress.

Author(s): 
Schwartz, Daniel R.
Sack, Michael N.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Ischemic tolerance decreases with aging, and the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is impaired in middle-aged animals. We have demonstrated that short-term caloric restriction (CR) improves myocardial ischemic tolerance in young and old animals via the activation of adiponectin-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated signaling. However, it is unknown whether prolonged CR confers cardioprotection in a similar manner.

Author(s): 
Shinmura, Ken
Tamaki, Kayoko
Bolli, Roberto
Publication Title: 
Circulation Research

RATIONALE: Caloric restriction (CR) confers cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the exact mechanism(s) underlying CR-induced cardioprotection remain(s) unknown. Recent evidence indicates that Sirtuins, NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases, regulate various favorable aspects of the CR response. Thus, we hypothesized that deacetylation of specific mitochondrial proteins during CR preserves mitochondrial function and attenuates production of reactive oxygen species during ischemia/reperfusion.

Author(s): 
Shinmura, Ken
Tamaki, Kayoko
Sano, Motoaki
Nakashima-Kamimura, Naomi
Wolf, Alexander M.
Amo, Taku
Ohta, Shigeo
Katsumata, Yoshinori
Fukuda, Keiichi
Ishiwata, Kyoko
Suematsu, Makoto
Adachi, Takeshi

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