Myocytes, Smooth Muscle

Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Tissue engineering holds the promise of replacing damaged or diseased tissues and organs. The use of autologous donor cells is often not feasible because of the limited replicative lifespan of cells, particularly those derived from elderly patients. Proliferative arrest can be overcome by the ectopic expression of telomerase via human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene transfection. To study the efficacy and safety of this potentially valuable technology, we used differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and vascular tissue engineering as a model system.

Author(s): 
Klinger, Rebecca Y.
Blum, Juliana L.
Hearn, Bevin
Lebow, Benjamin
Niklason, Laura E.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Extending the productive lifespan of human cells could have major implications for diseases of aging, such as atherosclerosis. We identified a relationship between aging of human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt/PBEF/Visfatin), the rate-limiting enzyme for NAD+ salvage from nicotinamide. Replicative senescence of SMCs was preceded by a marked decline in the expression and activity of Nampt.

Author(s): 
van der Veer, Eric
Ho, Cynthia
O'Neil, Caroline
Barbosa, Nicole
Scott, Robert
Cregan, Sean P.
Pickering, J. Geoffrey
Publication Title: 
FEBS letters

Sir2 mediates lifespan extension in lower eukaryotes but whether its mammalian homolog, sirtuin 1, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog (SIRT1), is a longevity protein is controversial. We stably introduced the SIRT1 gene into human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and observed minimal extension of replicative lifespan. However, SIRT1 activity was found to be exquisitely dependent on nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) activity.

Author(s): 
Ho, Cynthia
van der Veer, Eric
Akawi, Oula
Pickering, J. Geoffrey
Publication Title: 
Hypertension

Inflammation appears to be pivotal in all phases of atherosclerosis from the fatty streak lesion to acute coronary syndromes. An important downstream marker of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). Numerous studies have shown that CRP levels predict cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy individuals. This has resulted in a position statement recommending cutoff levels of CRP <1.0, 1.0 to 3.0, and >3.0 mg/L equating to low, average, and high risk for subsequent cardiovascular disease.

Author(s): 
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Devaraj, Sridevi
Venugopal, Senthil K.
Publication Title: 
Atherosclerosis

Chlorotyrosine is an oxidative product of hypochlorous acid and l-tyrosine, and is considered as a biomarker for oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. However, it is not clear whether chlorotyrosine could directly contribute to vascular pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effect and potential mechanisms of chlorotyrosine on human aortic smooth muscle cell (AoSMC) migration. With Boyden chamber and wound healing assays, chlorotyrosine significantly increased AoSMC migration in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Mu, Hong
Wang, Xinwen
Lin, Peter H.
Yao, Qizhi
Chen, Changyi
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

Nitrotyrosine is a new biomarker of atherosclerosis and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine the direct effects of free nitrotyrosine on human aortic smooth muscle cell (AoSMC) migration and molecular mechanisms. By a modified Boyden chamber assay, nitrotyrosine significantly increased AoSMC migration in a concentration-dependent manner. For example, nitrotyrosine at 300 nM increased AoSMC migration up to 152% compared with l-tyrosine-treated control cells (P<0.01). Cell wound healing assay confirmed this effect.

Author(s): 
Mu, Hong
Wang, Xinwen
Lin, Peter
Yao, Qizhi
Chen, Changyi
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Aging promotes oxidative stress in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, which contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor, which is activated by reactive oxygen species in the vasculature of young animals, leading to adaptive upregulation of numerous reactive oxygen species detoxifying and antioxidant genes. The present study was designed to elucidate age-associated changes in the homeostatic role of Nrf2-driven free radical detoxification mechanisms in the vasculature of nonhuman primates.

Author(s): 
Ungvari, Zoltan
Bailey-Downs, Lora
Gautam, Tripti
Sosnowska, Danuta
Wang, Mingyi
Monticone, Robert E.
Telljohann, Richard
Pinto, John T.
de Cabo, Raphael
Sonntag, William E.
Lakatta, Edward G.
Csiszar, Anna
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

There is increasing evidence that age-associated chronic low-grade inflammation promotes the development of both large-vessel disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease) and small-vessel pathologies (including vascular cognitive impairment) in older persons. However, the source of age-related chronic vascular inflammation remains unclear.

Author(s): 
Csiszar, Anna
Sosnowska, Danuta
Wang, Mingyi
Lakatta, Edward G.
Sonntag, William E.
Ungvari, Zoltan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMCOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginseng, a folk medicine which has been used for thousands of years in Asia, has been promoted for the treatment or prevention of health problems including cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular mechanism of ginseng-induced cardiovascular protection is unclear. Thus, we investigated signaling mechanism by which American ginseng inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, a key feature of diverse vascular disease.

Author(s): 
Wu, Qi
Wang, Wenjuan
Li, Siying
Nagarkatti, Prakash
Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Windust, Anthony
Wang, Xing Li
Tang, Dongqi
Cui, Taixing
Publication Title: 
Journal of Medicinal Food

Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies may have promise as treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of rosemary need more study.

Author(s): 
Chae, In Gyeong
Yu, Mi Hee
Im, Nam-Kyung
Jung, Young Tae
Lee, Jinho
Chun, Kyung-Soo
Lee, In-Seon

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