NADP

Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Aging and age-related diseases can be viewed as the result of the lifelong accumulation of stress insults. The identification of mutant strains and genes that are responsive to stress and can alter longevity profiles provides new therapeutic targets for age-related diseases. Here we reported that a Drosophila strain with reduced expression of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (rpi), EP2456, exhibits increased resistance to oxidative stress and enhanced lifespan. In addition, the strain also displays higher levels of NADPH.

Author(s): 
Wang, Ching-Tzu
Chen, Yi-Chun
Wang, Yi-Yun
Huang, Ming-Hao
Yen, Tzu-Li
Li, Hsun
Liang, Cyong-Jhih
Sang, Tzu-Kang
Ciou, Shih-Ci
Yuh, Chiou-Hwa
Wang, Chao-Yung
Brummel, Theodore J.
Wang, Horng-Dar
Publication Title: 
Metabolic Engineering

A key consideration in metabolic engineering is the determination of fluxes of the metabolites within the cell. This determination provides an unambiguous description of metabolism before and/or after engineering interventions. Here, we present a computational framework that combines a constraint-based modeling framework with isotopic label tracing on a large scale.

Author(s): 
Suthers, Patrick F.
Burgard, Anthony P.
Dasika, Madhukar S.
Nowroozi, Farnaz
Van Dien, Stephen
Keasling, Jay D.
Maranas, Costas D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the National Cancer Institute

The effects of riboflavin deficiency on the metabolism of N-nitrosodimethylamine [(DMN) CAS: 62-75-9] and other nitrosamines were examined in rats. After weanling rats were put on a riboflavin-deficient diet, the development of the deficiency was monitored by the growth rate and the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient. In the riboflavin-deficient rats, the liver microsomal NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity was lower but the cytochrome P450 content was higher than that of the control. The metabolism of DMN was dependent on the severity of the deficiency.

Author(s): 
Wang, T.
Miller, K. W.
Tu, Y. Y.
Yang, C. S.
Publication Title: 
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

In the traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda, several spices and herbs are thought to possess medicinal properties. Among the spices, turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa. Linn.) are used as flavoring and coloring agents in the Indian diet everyday. In this research, we studied the effect of turmeric and its active principle, curcumin, on diabetes mellitus in a rat model. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes. Administration of turmeric or curcumin to diabetic rats reduced the blood sugar, Hb and glycosylated hemoglobin levels significantly.

Author(s): 
Arun, N.
Nalini, N.
Publication Title: 
Inflammopharmacology

The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Linn (Lauraceae), component of Indian spices are associated with hypoglycemic property in Ayurveda; however, no report is available towards its immunomodulation property, which has been explored here. The dried powder of CT leaves was extracted with hexane and solvent free extract (CTH) was given orally to rats for 10 days, in various doses. Its effect was studied on peritoneal macrophage functions, and was compared with ascorbic acid (1,000 mg/kg, immune-stimulant) and cyclophosphamide (10 mg/kg, immune-suppressant).

Author(s): 
Chaurasia, J. K.
Pandey, Nidhi
Tripathi, Yamini Bhushan
Publication Title: 
Biophysical Journal

In adherent and motile neutrophils NAD(P)H concentration, flavoprotein redox potential, and production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, are all periodic and exhibit defined phase relationships to an underlying metabolic oscillation of approximately 20 s. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy, we have shown in real-time, on the single cell level, that the system is sensitive to externally applied periodically pulsed weak magnetic fields matched in frequency to the metabolic oscillation.

Author(s): 
Rosenspire, Allen J.
Kindzelskii, Andrei L.
Simon, Bruce J.
Petty, Howard R.
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

Nitrotyrosine is a new biomarker of atherosclerosis and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine the direct effects of free nitrotyrosine on human aortic smooth muscle cell (AoSMC) migration and molecular mechanisms. By a modified Boyden chamber assay, nitrotyrosine significantly increased AoSMC migration in a concentration-dependent manner. For example, nitrotyrosine at 300 nM increased AoSMC migration up to 152% compared with l-tyrosine-treated control cells (P<0.01). Cell wound healing assay confirmed this effect.

Author(s): 
Mu, Hong
Wang, Xinwen
Lin, Peter
Yao, Qizhi
Chen, Changyi
Publication Title: 
Critical Care Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To determine the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in the impairment of capillary blood flow in sepsis and in the reversal of this impairment by ascorbate. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled laboratory study. SETTING: Animal laboratory in research institute. SUBJECTS: Adult male wild type (WT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-/-, inducible NOS (iNOS)-/-, endothelial NOS (eNOS)-/-, and gp91phox-/- mice. INTERVENTIONS: Sepsis was induced by feces injection into peritoneum (FIP).

Author(s): 
Tyml, Karel
Li, Fuyan
Wilson, John X.
Publication Title: 
Neurochemistry International

Recent studies have suggested the involvement of secretory phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA) in neuroinflammatory diseases. Although sPLA2-IIA is transcriptionally induced through the NF-kappaB pathway by pro-inflammatory cytokines, whether this induction pathway is affected by other intracellular signaling pathways has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we demonstrated the induction of sPLA2-IIA mRNA and protein expression in astrocytes by cytokines and detected the protein in the culture medium after stimulation.

Author(s): 
Jensen, Michael D.
Sheng, Wenwen
Simonyi, Agnes
Johnson, Gary S.
Sun, Albert Y.
Sun, Grace Y.
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

The influence of caloric restriction (CR) on hepatic sorbitol-metabolizing enzyme activities was investigated in young and old mice. Aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were significantly lower in old CR mice than in old controls. Young CR mice showed decreased aldose reductase activity and a trend towards decreased sorbitol dehydrogenase when compared to controls. Metabolites of the pathway, namely sorbitol, glucose and fructose were decreased by CR in young and old mice.

Author(s): 
Hagopian, Kevork
Ramsey, Jon J.
Weindruch, Richard

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