The effects of naltrexone on the increase in locomotor activity induced by a low dose (1.35 g/kg IP) of ethanol and on the duration of loss of righting reflex after a high dose (3.5 g/kg) of ethanol were studied in BALB/c, DBA/2, and C57BL/6 mice. Ethanol increased locomotor activity in DBA and BALB mice, but not in C57BL mice. Naltrexone, at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, antagonized the ethanol-induced increase in locomotion similarly in DBA and BALB mice. The duration of loss of righting reflex was, however, differentially affected in all three strains by naltrexone.
In previous studies using Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activation, we showed that nitrous oxide (N(2)O) activates bulbospinal noradrenergic neurons in rats and that destruction of these neuronal pathways leads to loss of N(2)O antinociceptive action. Based on previous rat studies it has been proposed that these noradrenergic neurons are activated through opioid receptors through the release of endogenous opioid ligands in the periaqueductal gray.
MAP kinase is associated with delta-opioid receptor (DOR) signaling and plays a role in cell survival/death. Since anisomycin may alter MAP kinase activity and affect neuronal survival, we investigated whether anisomycin alters neuronal response to hypoxic stress and DOR inhibition. The experiments were performed in cultured cortical neurons. MAP kinase activities were determined by immunoblotting and neuronal viability was assessed by LDH leakage and live/dead morphological study.
Although studies demonstrate that electroacupuncture (EA) alleviates the sensory dimension of pain, they have not addressed EA's effect on the affective dimension. An inflammatory pain rat model, produced by a complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) injection into the hind paw, was combined with a conditioned place avoidance test to determine EA's effects and its underpinning mechanism on the affective dimension of pain. CFA-injected rats showed place aversion, i.e.
Research supports the effectiveness of acupuncture for conditions such as chronic low back and knee pain. In a five-patient pilot study the modality also improved the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Using an established rat model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, we evaluated the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia that has not been studied in an animal model.
OBJECTIVES: δ-opioid receptor (DOR) activation reduced brain ischemic infarction and attenuated neurological deficits, while DOR inhibition aggravated the ischemic damage. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not well understood yet. In this work, we asked if DOR activation protects the brain against ischemic injury through a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) -TrkB pathway. METHODS: We exposed adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to focal cerebral ischemia, which was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).
Earlier research has demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) can produce an antinociceptive effect in models of acute pain. Recent studies have revealed that HBO2 can produce pain relief in animal models of chronic pain as well. The purpose of the present investigation was to ascertain whether HBO2 treatment might suppress allodynia in rats with neuropathic pain and whether this effect might be blocked by the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX).
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
BACKGROUND: Currently, only one medication (risperidone) is FDA-approved for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Perhaps for this reason, the use of novel, unconventional, and off-label treatments for ASD is common, with up to 74% of children with ASD using these treatments; however, treating physicians are often unaware of this usage. METHODS: A systematic literature search of electronic scientific databases was performed to identify studies of novel and emerging treatments for ASD, including nutritional supplements, diets, medications, and nonbiological treatments.
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal motility disorders (GMDs) are common in the ICU. When encountering these problems, one typically thinks of prokinetics. This review summarizes current evidence of treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Prokinetics are not the first-line therapy for GMDs. In fact, the clinical implications of using prokinetic agents are rather controversial. Current evidence on alternative treatment modalities such as fluid and electrolyte management, laxatives, opioid antagonists, purgative enemas, acupuncture, physical therapies and probiotics is growing.
BACKGROUND: Preconditioning with repeated electroacupuncture (EA) could mimic ischemic preconditioning to induce cerebral ischemic tolerance in rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether mu (micro)-, delta (delta)- or kappa (kappa)-opioid receptors are involved in the neuroprotection induced by repeated EA preconditioning.