Narcotic Antagonists

Publication Title: 
Trends in Neurosciences

Addictions to cocaine or heroin/prescription opioids [short-acting ?-opioid receptor (MOPr) agonists] involve relapsing cycles, with experimentation/escalating use, withdrawal/abstinence, and relapse/re-escalation. ?-Opioid receptors (KOPr; encoded by OPRK1), and their endogenous agonists, the dynorphins (encoded by PDYN), have counter-modulatory effects on reward caused by cocaine or MOPr agonist exposure, and exhibit plasticity in addictive-like states. KOPr/dynorphin activation is implicated in depression/anxiety, often comorbid with addictions.

Author(s): 
Butelman, Eduardo R.
Yuferov, Vadim
Kreek, Mary Jeanne
Publication Title: 
Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre

OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation in rats and mice employing the tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test, respectively.

Author(s): 
Chandrasekar, S. B.
Divakar, Kalyani
Pawar, A. T.
Goli, Divakar
Harisha, R.
Bhanumathy, M.
Sushma, G.
Shivaprasad, H. N.
Publication Title: 
Schmerz (Berlin, Germany)

MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the evidence for clinically established pharmacological therapies for constipation in palliative care, a systematic literature review was performed in different databases (Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL), textbooks, and publications.

Author(s): 
Bader, S.
Weber, M.
Becker, G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Addiction Medicine

Previous studies have not examined patterns of pain treatment use among patients seeking office-based buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (BNT) for opioid dependence. OBJECTIVES: To examine, among individuals with pain seeking BNT for opioid dependence, the use of pain treatment modalities, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in pursuing pain treatment while in BNT.

Author(s): 
Barry, Declan T.
Savant, Jonathan D.
Beitel, Mark
Cutter, Christopher J.
Moore, Brent A.
Schottenfeld, Richard S.
Fiellin, David A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Addiction Medicine

Previous studies have not examined patterns of pain treatment use among patients seeking office-based buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (BNT) for opioid dependence. OBJECTIVES: To examine, among individuals with pain seeking BNT for opioid dependence, the use of pain treatment modalities, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in pursuing pain treatment while in BNT.

Author(s): 
Barry, Declan T.
Savant, Jonathan D.
Beitel, Mark
Cutter, Christopher J.
Moore, Brent A.
Schottenfeld, Richard S.
Fiellin, David A.
Publication Title: 
Pain

Joint manipulation has long been used for pain relief. However, the underlying mechanisms for manipulation-related pain relief remain largely unexplored. The purpose of the current study was to determine which spinal neurotransmitter receptors mediate manipulation-induced antihyperalgesia. Rats were injected with capsaicin (50 microl, 0.2%) into one ankle joint and mechanical withdrawal threshold measured before and after injection. The mechanical withdrawal threshold decreases 2 h after capsaicin injection.

Author(s): 
Skyba, D. A.
Radhakrishnan, R.
Rohlwing, J. J.
Wright, A.
Sluka, K. A.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

MAP kinase is associated with delta-opioid receptor (DOR) signaling and plays a role in cell survival/death. Since anisomycin may alter MAP kinase activity and affect neuronal survival, we investigated whether anisomycin alters neuronal response to hypoxic stress and DOR inhibition. The experiments were performed in cultured cortical neurons. MAP kinase activities were determined by immunoblotting and neuronal viability was assessed by LDH leakage and live/dead morphological study.

Author(s): 
Hong, Soon-Sun
Qian, Hong
Zhao, Peng
Bazzy-Asaad, Alia
Xia, Ying
Publication Title: 
Pain

In a previous study, we showed that electroacupuncture (EA) applied to the SI-6 point on the contralateral forelimb produces long-lasting and powerful analgesia in pain caused by ankle sprain in a rat model. To investigate the underlying mechanism of EA analgesia, the present study tested the effects of various antagonists on known endogenous analgesic systems in this model. Ankle sprain was induced in anesthetized rats by overextending their right ankle with repeated forceful plantar flexion and inversion of the foot.

Author(s): 
Koo, Sung Tae
Lim, Kyu Sang
Chung, Kyungsoon
Ju, Hyunsu
Chung, Jin Mo
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience

Recent evidence suggests an important role for hypothalamic orexins/hypocretins in modulation of drug reward and addiction-like behaviors in rodents. Our recent study has shown that the aversive state of arousal during acute morphine withdrawal is associated with increased orexin gene expression in lateral hypothalamus (LH) of Fischer 344 (F344) inbred rats, with no change in the expression of preprodynorphin (ppDyn), a gene co-expressed with LH orexin.

Author(s): 
Zhou, Y.
Cui, C.-L.
Schlussman, S. D.
Choi, J. C.
Ho, A.
Han, J.-S.
Kreek, M. J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment

This pilot study tested the effectiveness of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) as an adjunctive treatment for inpatients receiving opioid detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants (N = 48) were randomly assigned to active or sham TEAS and received three 30-minute treatments daily for 3 to 4 days. In active TEAS, current was set to maximal tolerable intensity (8-15 mA); in sham TEAS, it was set to 1 mA. By 2 weeks postdischarge, participants in active TEAS were less likely to have used any drugs (35% vs. 77%, p < .05).

Author(s): 
Meade, Christina S.
Lukas, Scott E.
McDonald, Leah J.
Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.
Eldridge, Jessica A.
Merrill, Nancy
Weiss, Roger D.

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