Narcotic Antagonists

Publication Title: 
Neuroscience

Recent evidence suggests an important role for hypothalamic orexins/hypocretins in modulation of drug reward and addiction-like behaviors in rodents. Our recent study has shown that the aversive state of arousal during acute morphine withdrawal is associated with increased orexin gene expression in lateral hypothalamus (LH) of Fischer 344 (F344) inbred rats, with no change in the expression of preprodynorphin (ppDyn), a gene co-expressed with LH orexin.

Author(s): 
Zhou, Y.
Cui, C.-L.
Schlussman, S. D.
Choi, J. C.
Ho, A.
Han, J.-S.
Kreek, M. J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment

This pilot study tested the effectiveness of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) as an adjunctive treatment for inpatients receiving opioid detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants (N = 48) were randomly assigned to active or sham TEAS and received three 30-minute treatments daily for 3 to 4 days. In active TEAS, current was set to maximal tolerable intensity (8-15 mA); in sham TEAS, it was set to 1 mA. By 2 weeks postdischarge, participants in active TEAS were less likely to have used any drugs (35% vs. 77%, p < .05).

Author(s): 
Meade, Christina S.
Lukas, Scott E.
McDonald, Leah J.
Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.
Eldridge, Jessica A.
Merrill, Nancy
Weiss, Roger D.
Publication Title: 
Pain

Central sensitization, caused either by tissue inflammation or peripheral nerve injury, plays an important role in persistent pain. An animal model of capsaicin-induced pain has well-defined peripheral and central sensitization components, thus is useful for studying the analgesic effect on two separate components. The focus of this study is to examine the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia, which represents central sensitization.

Author(s): 
Kim, Hee Young
Wang, Jigong
Lee, Inhyung
Kim, Hee Kee
Chung, Kyungsoon
Chung, Jin Mo
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Preventing and reversing opioid dependence continues to be a clinical challenge and underlying mechanisms of opioid actions remain elusive. We report that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the spinal cord contributes to development of physical dependence on morphine. Chronic morphine exposure and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal increase activity of spinal MMP-9. Spinal inhibition or targeted mutation of MMP-9 suppresses behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal and the associated neurochemical alterations.

Author(s): 
Liu, Wen-Tao
Han, Yuan
Liu, Yue-Peng
Song, Angela A.
Barnes, Beth
Song, Xue-Jun
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Research supports the effectiveness of acupuncture for conditions such as chronic low back and knee pain. In a five-patient pilot study the modality also improved the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Using an established rat model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, we evaluated the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia that has not been studied in an animal model.

Author(s): 
Meng, Xianze
Zhang, Yu
Li, Aihui
Xin, Jiajia
Lao, Lixing
Ren, Ke
Berman, Brian M.
Tan, Ming
Zhang, Rui-Xin
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Earlier research has demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) can produce an antinociceptive effect in models of acute pain. Recent studies have revealed that HBO2 can produce pain relief in animal models of chronic pain as well. The purpose of the present investigation was to ascertain whether HBO2 treatment might suppress allodynia in rats with neuropathic pain and whether this effect might be blocked by the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX).

Author(s): 
Gibbons, Carlee R.
Liu, Shulin
Zhang, Yangmiao
Sayre, Casey L.
Levitch, Briana R.
Moehlmann, Sarah B.
Shirachi, Donald Y.
Quock, Raymond M.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal motility disorders (GMDs) are common in the ICU. When encountering these problems, one typically thinks of prokinetics. This review summarizes current evidence of treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Prokinetics are not the first-line therapy for GMDs. In fact, the clinical implications of using prokinetic agents are rather controversial. Current evidence on alternative treatment modalities such as fluid and electrolyte management, laxatives, opioid antagonists, purgative enemas, acupuncture, physical therapies and probiotics is growing.

Author(s): 
Pfab, Florian
Nowak-Machen, Martina
Napadow, Vitaly
Fleckenstein, Johannes
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lecythis pisonis Camb., also known in Brazil as sapucaia, is used in folk medicine against pruritus, muscle pain and gastric ulcer. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the antinociceptive effect of ethanol extract from Lecythis pisonis leaves (LPEE), fractions (hexane-LPHF, ether-LPEF and ethyl acetate-LPEAF) and mixture of triterpenes [ursolic and oleanolic acids (MT)] in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LPEE and LPEF were evaluated on the acetic acid induced writhings and formalin, capsaicin and glutamate tests.

Author(s): 
Brandão, M. S.
Pereira, S. S.
Lima, D. F.
Oliveira, J. P. C.
Ferreira, E. L. F.
Chaves, M. H.
Almeida, F. R. C.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Progress in the control and treatment of pain may be facilitated by a better understanding of mechanisms underlying nociceptive processing. Here we show that mice subjected to an intermittent fasting diet (IFD) display markedly reduced responses in models of thermal and visceral pain compared with mice fed ad libitum (AL). Pharmacological analyses suggest that a change in the endogenous kappa-opioid system underlies IFD-induced analgesia. The levels of prodynorphin mRNA and kappa-opioid receptors in the spinal cord are higher in IFD than in AL mice.

Author(s): 
de los Santos-Arteaga, Mercedes
Sierra-Domínguez, Sergio A.
Fontanella, German H.
Delgado-García, Jose M.
Carrión, Angel M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

BACKGROUND: Metabolic and thermal stresses of exercise mediate the release of endogenous opioids depressing motoneuron activation (MNA). Although exercise is routinely presented as a coequal treatment for management of acute and chronic low back pain (LBP), it is not clear that exercise-induced endogenous opioid release can play a role in the analgesic and treatment outcomes for patients with LBP. Furthermore, if opioid involvement is present, it is not clear what level of exercise might be beneficial in the suppression of MNA and possibly LBP.

Author(s): 
Bulbulian, Ronald

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