Narcotic Antagonists

Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

BACKGROUND: Metabolic and thermal stresses of exercise mediate the release of endogenous opioids depressing motoneuron activation (MNA). Although exercise is routinely presented as a coequal treatment for management of acute and chronic low back pain (LBP), it is not clear that exercise-induced endogenous opioid release can play a role in the analgesic and treatment outcomes for patients with LBP. Furthermore, if opioid involvement is present, it is not clear what level of exercise might be beneficial in the suppression of MNA and possibly LBP.

Author(s): 
Bulbulian, Ronald
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Physiology

Acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a wide range of diseases and conditions, including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. In a feline model of reflex-induced reversible myocardial ischemia, electrical stimulation of the median nerves to mimic EA (Neiguan acupoint) significantly improved ischemic dysfunction, secondary to an inhibitory effect of EA on reflex pressor effects evoked by bradykinin (BK). The central mechanism of EA's inhibitory effect in this model is unknown.

Author(s): 
Chao, D. M.
Shen, L. L.
Tjen-A-Looi, S.
Pitsillides, K. F.
Li, P.
Longhurst, J. C.
Publication Title: 
Alcohol and Alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire)

AIMS: Alcohol-related disorders (ARDs) have become an increasing mental health and social challenge in China. Research from China may provide important clinical information for researchers and clinicians around the world. However, most of the Chinese research on ARDs has only been published in Chinese language journals. This article summarizes publications related to treatments for ARDs found in the Chinese literature.

Author(s): 
Tang, Yi-Lang
Hao, Wei
Leggio, Lorenzo
Publication Title: 
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine

CONTEXT: Qigong is a traditional Chinese health practice believed to have special healing and recovery power. Little scientific documentation was found on qigong and its effectiveness, and no literature was found on qigong as a treatment of substance addiction. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness of qigong therapy on detoxification of heroin addicts compared to medical and nonmedical treatment. DESIGN: Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: qigong treatment group (n = 34), medication group (n = 26), and no-treatment control group (n = 26).

Author(s): 
Li, Ming
Chen, Kevin
Mo, Zhixian
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology

Recently, paeoniflorin (PF) administered systemically was found to have analgesic effects against inflammatory pain and hypersensitivity in a naloxone-reversible manner. In the present study, we adopted intrathecal administration to evaluate whether PF has direct antinociceptive actions at the spinal level. Pain-related behaviors and spinal c-Fos expression were induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV) into one hind paw of a rat.

Author(s): 
Yu, Hou-You
Mu, De-guang
Chen, Jun
Yin, Wen
Publication Title: 
Nature Neuroscience

A major unresolved issue in treating pain is the paradoxical hyperalgesia produced by the gold-standard analgesic morphine and other opiates. We found that hyperalgesia-inducing treatment with morphine resulted in downregulation of the K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter KCC2, impairing Cl(-) homeostasis in rat spinal lamina l neurons. Restoring the anion equilibrium potential reversed the morphine-induced hyperalgesia without affecting tolerance. The hyperalgesia was also reversed by ablating spinal microglia.

Author(s): 
Ferrini, Francesco
Trang, Tuan
Mattioli, Theresa-Alexandra M.
Laffray, Sophie
Del'Guidice, Thomas
Lorenzo, Louis-Etienne
Castonguay, Annie
Doyon, Nicolas
Zhang, Wenbo
Godin, Antoine G.
Mohr, Daniela
Beggs, Simon
Vandal, Karen
Beaulieu, Jean-Martin
Cahill, Catherine M.
Salter, Michael W.
De Koninck, Yves
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

The relationship between the delta-receptors of the hippocampus and electro-acupuncture (EA) anticonvulsions was analyzed by radioimmunoassay and microinjection. The content of leu-enkephalin-like immunoreactive substance (LEK-LIS) in perfusate from the hippocampus increased after repeated electroconvulsive shock (ECS), while the content of LEK-LIS was not changed after single ECS. EA inhibited epileptiform spikes induced by ECS, and the content of LEK-LIS decreased markedly after EA (30 +/- 9 pg/0.1 ml lower than that before EA).

Author(s): 
He, X. P.
Cao, X. D.
Publication Title: 
Japanese Journal of Pharmacology

To elucidate mechanisms involved in analgesia induced by effects of electro-acupuncture (EAP), effects of EAP on evoked potentials and release of substance P (SP) following tooth pulp stimulation (ST) in the superficial layers of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Vc-I-II) were studied in the rabbit. The potentials evoked by ST were composed of two main components with conduction velocity of ca. 30 m/sec (fast component) and ca. 12 m/sec (late component). The late component was significantly inhibited by morphine (10 mg/kg, i.v.) or CP-96,345 (5 mg/kg, i.v.), an SP antagonist.

Author(s): 
Takagi, J.
Sawada, T.
Yonehara, N.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Physiology

Acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a wide range of diseases and conditions, including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. In a feline model of reflex-induced reversible myocardial ischemia, electrical stimulation of the median nerves to mimic EA (Neiguan acupoint) significantly improved ischemic dysfunction, secondary to an inhibitory effect of EA on reflex pressor effects evoked by bradykinin (BK). The central mechanism of EA's inhibitory effect in this model is unknown.

Author(s): 
Chao, D. M.
Shen, L. L.
Tjen-A-Looi, S.
Pitsillides, K. F.
Li, P.
Longhurst, J. C.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Acupuncture has been shown to modulate visceral sensation and function. Traditionally, stimulation at the Neiguan (pericardial meridian) has been used to treat upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Some of the effects of acupuncture may be mediated through release of endogenous opioids and are reversed by naloxone. Gastric distension is the major trigger for transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations (TLESRs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electric stimulation at the Neiguan and naloxone on the TLESRs.

Author(s): 
Zou, Duowu
Chen, Wei Hao
Iwakiri, Katsuhiko
Rigda, Rachael
Tippett, Marcus
Holloway, Richard H.

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