Narcotic Antagonists

Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences

We evaluated the interaction between electroacupuncture (EA)-induced antinociception and an endogenous anti-analgesic system. EA was applied to the ST-36 acupoint for 45 min in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and pain thresholds were assessed by the hind-paw pressure test. EA produced a marked increase in pain thresholds and its antinociceptive action was completely reversed by naloxone (5 mg/kg). The analgesic effects of subcutaneous morphine (7 mg/kg) following EA stimulation were significantly attenuated.

Author(s): 
Fukazawa, Yohji
Maeda, Takehiko
Hamabe, Wakako
Kumamoto, Kazumasa
Gao, Yuan
Yamamoto, Chizuko
Ozaki, Masanobu
Kishioka, Shiroh
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Visceral sympathoexcitatory reflexes induced by stimulation of the gallbladder with bradykinin (BK) are attenuated by electroacupuncture (EA) at Neiguan-Jianshi (P5-6) acupoints located over the median nerve. Previous studies have shown that neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) receive convergent input from visceral organs and somatic nerves (activated by EA). Glutamate (Glu), an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the rVLM, processes visceral sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular reflexes.

Author(s): 
Zhou, Wei
Fu, Liang-Wu
Guo, Zhi-Ling
Longhurst, John C.
Publication Title: 
Pain

In a previous study, we showed that electroacupuncture (EA) applied to the SI-6 point on the contralateral forelimb produces long-lasting and powerful analgesia in pain caused by ankle sprain in a rat model. To investigate the underlying mechanism of EA analgesia, the present study tested the effects of various antagonists on known endogenous analgesic systems in this model. Ankle sprain was induced in anesthetized rats by overextending their right ankle with repeated forceful plantar flexion and inversion of the foot.

Author(s): 
Koo, Sung Tae
Lim, Kyu Sang
Chung, Kyungsoon
Ju, Hyunsu
Chung, Jin Mo
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Electroacupuncture (EA) causes prolonged suppression of reflex elevations in blood pressure for 1-2 h in anesthetized preparations. A long-loop pathway involving the arcuate nucleus (ARC), ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) is involved in sympathoinhibitory cardiovascular EA effects. However, the mechanisms and locations of the prolonged EA inhibition are unknown. We hypothesized that this effect is mediated through a long-loop pathway involving opioid, nociceptin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor activation in the rVLM.

Author(s): 
Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.
Li, Peng
Longhurst, John C.
Publication Title: 
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira De Pesquisas Médicas E Biológicas / Sociedade Brasileira De Biofísica ... [et Al.]

The participation of opioids in the antinociceptive effect of electroacupuncture was evaluated in terms of nociception produced by thermal stimuli applied to the face of male Wistar rats, weighing 180-230 g. Electrical stimulation (bipolar and asymmetric square wave with 0.5 mA intensity for 20 min) of acupoint St36, located in the anterior tibial muscle 10 mm distal to the knee joint, induced antinociception in the present model, which was maintained for 150 min.

Author(s): 
Almeida, R. T.
Perez, A. C.
Francischi, J. N.
Castro, M. S.
Duarte, I. D. G.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Rectal distension (RD) is known to induce upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of RD on gastric slow waves (GSW) and motor activity and furthermore to investigate the effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) on GSW and motor activity. Eight female hound dogs chronically implanted with gastric serosal electrodes and a gastric fistula were studied in six separate sessions. Antral motility, GSW, heart rate variability, and rectal pressure were evaluated for the above purposes.

Author(s): 
Chen, Jie
Song, Geng-Qing
Yin, Jieyun
Koothan, Thillai
Chen, J. D. Z.
Publication Title: 
Pain

Central sensitization, caused either by tissue inflammation or peripheral nerve injury, plays an important role in persistent pain. An animal model of capsaicin-induced pain has well-defined peripheral and central sensitization components, thus is useful for studying the analgesic effect on two separate components. The focus of this study is to examine the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia, which represents central sensitization.

Author(s): 
Kim, Hee Young
Wang, Jigong
Lee, Inhyung
Kim, Hee Kee
Chung, Kyungsoon
Chung, Jin Mo
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Research supports the effectiveness of acupuncture for conditions such as chronic low back and knee pain. In a five-patient pilot study the modality also improved the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Using an established rat model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, we evaluated the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia that has not been studied in an animal model.

Author(s): 
Meng, Xianze
Zhang, Yu
Li, Aihui
Xin, Jiajia
Lao, Lixing
Ren, Ke
Berman, Brian M.
Tan, Ming
Zhang, Rui-Xin
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

Stimulation of cardiopulmonary receptors with phenylbiguanide (PBG) elicits depressor cardiovascular reflex responses, including decreases in blood pressure and heart rate mediated in part by the brain stem parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NAmb). The present study examined NAmb neurotransmitter mechanisms underlying the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) on the PBG-induced hypotension and bradycardia. We hypothesized that somatic stimulation during EA modulates PBG responses through opioid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulation in the NAmb.

Author(s): 
Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.
Li, Peng
Li, Min
Longhurst, John C.
Publication Title: 
Alcohol and Alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire)

AIMS: Alcohol-related disorders (ARDs) have become an increasing mental health and social challenge in China. Research from China may provide important clinical information for researchers and clinicians around the world. However, most of the Chinese research on ARDs has only been published in Chinese language journals. This article summarizes publications related to treatments for ARDs found in the Chinese literature.

Author(s): 
Tang, Yi-Lang
Hao, Wei
Leggio, Lorenzo

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