Neocortex

Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

This article proposes that behavioural advancement during mammalian evolution had been in part mediated through extension of total developmental time. Such time extensions would have resulted in increased numbers of neuronal precursor cells, hence larger brains and a disproportionate increase in the neocortex. Larger neocortical areas enabled new connections to be formed during development and hence expansion of existing behavioural circuits.

Author(s): 
Neill, David
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Aging

An increasing number of people are living past the age of 100 years, but little is known about what differentiates centenarians from the rest of the population. In this study, brains from female subjects in 3 different age groups, 65-75 years (n = 8), 76-85 years (n = 8), and 94-105 years (n = 7), were examined to estimate the total number of neocortical neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia.

Author(s): 
Fabricius, Katrine
Jacobsen, Jette Stub
Pakkenberg, Bente
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Aging

An increasing number of people are living past the age of 100 years, but little is known about what differentiates centenarians from the rest of the population. In this study, brains from female subjects in 3 different age groups, 65-75 years (n = 8), 76-85 years (n = 8), and 94-105 years (n = 7), were examined to estimate the total number of neocortical neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia.

Author(s): 
Fabricius, Katrine
Jacobsen, Jette Stub
Pakkenberg, Bente
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

Life's timekeeper is a 'free-running' intracellular oscillator synchronised across all cells. It runs throughout life splitting lifespan into equal length phases. During the maturational period it controls the overall rate of progression whereas in the post-maturational period it controls the overall rate of ageing. This includes the rate of senescence and hence time to death. As such life's timekeeper equates maturational and post-maturational time, hence explains the tight correlation between these time periods that has existed throughout mammalian evolution.

Author(s): 
Neill, David
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience

Two major environmental developments have occurred in mammalian evolution which have impacted on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of brain development. The first of these was viviparity and development of the placenta which placed a considerable burden of time and energy investment on the matriline, and which resulted in essential hypothalamic modifications.

Author(s): 
Keverne, E. B.
Publication Title: 
Trends in genetics: TIG

Transcriptional mechanisms mediated by the binding of transcription factors (TFs) to cis-acting regulatory elements (CREs) in DNA play crucial roles in directing gene expression. While TFs have been extensively studied, less effort has gone towards the identification and functional characterization of CREs and associated epigenetic modulation. However, owing to methodological and analytical advances, more comprehensive studies of regulatory elements and mechanisms are now possible.

Author(s): 
Shibata, Mikihito
Gulden, Forrest O.
Sestan, Nenad
Publication Title: 
The European Journal of Neuroscience

General anaesthetics cause sedation, amnesia and hypnosis. Although these clinically desired actions are indicative of an impairment of neocortical information processing, it is widely held that they are to a large part mediated by subcortical neural networks. Anaesthetic action on brain stem, basal forebrain and thalamus, all of which are known to modulate cortical excitability, would thus ultimately converge on neocortex, perturbing and reducing action potential activity therein.

Author(s): 
Hentschke, Harald
Schwarz, Cornelius
Antkowiak, Bernd
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are widely used in clinical anesthesia as premedication, but also to induce general anesthesia. Recent in vitro studies suggest that ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, harboring a classical high-affinity benzodiazepine binding site, possess another "nonclassical" binding site for benzodiazepines. At present, it is unclear if, and to what extent, this novel nonclassical binding site is of relevance for the actions of benzodiazepines in the central nervous system.

Author(s): 
Drexler, Berthold
Zinser, Stefan
Hentschke, Harald
Antkowiak, Bernd
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

The precise cause of neuronal death in Huntington's disease (HD) is unknown. Proteolytic products of the huntingtin protein can contribute to toxic cellular aggregates that may be formed in part by tissue transglutaminase (Tgase). Tgase activity is increased in HD brain. Treatment in R6/2 transgenic HD mice, using the transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine, significantly extended survival, improved body weight and motor performance, and delayed the neuropathological sequela. Tgase activity and N(Sigma)-(gamma-L-glutamyl)-L-lysine (GGEL) levels were significantly altered in HD mice.

Author(s): 
Dedeoglu, Alpaslan
Kubilus, James K.
Jeitner, Thomas M.
Matson, Samantha A.
Bogdanov, Misha
Kowall, Neil W.
Matson, Wayne R.
Cooper, Arthur J. L.
Ratan, Rajiv R.
Beal, M. Flint
Hersch, Steven M.
Ferrante, Robert J.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Behavioral paradigms applied during human recordings in electro- and magneto- encephalography (EEG and MEG) typically require 1-2 hours of data collection. Over this time scale, the natural fluctuations in brain state or rapid learning effects could impact measured signals, but are seldom analyzed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated within-session dynamics of neocortical alpha (7-14 Hz) rhythms and their allocation with cued-attention using MEG recorded from primary somatosensory neocortex (SI) in humans.

Author(s): 
Wan, Qian
Kerr, Catherine
Pritchett, Dominique
Hämäläinen, Matti
Moore, Christopher
Jones, Stephanie

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