Hardly an aspect of aging is more important than an organism's ability to withstand stress or to resist both internally and externally imposed insults. We know that as organisms loose their ability to resist these insults, aged organisms suffer more than the young. Therefore, a prime strategy for an organism's survival has been the evolutionarily adapted defense systems that guard against insult. For better survivability, an organism's defense system must be maximized to its full effect through well-coordinated networks of diverse biologically responsive elements.
The assumption that any additional exposure to ionizing radiation leads to an increase in the risk of stochastic health effects implies that some cases of these effects will be caused by exposure incurred occupationally. The main health effect expected to arise in the exposed individuals is cancer. Such radiation-induced cancers cannot be distinguished from the far larger number of background cancers, and, therefore, causation must be assessed statistically.
The effects, on normal human subjects, of 3 minutes exposure to electro-magnetic fields (EMFs) emitted from: A) personal computers, B) color television sets, or C) microwave-ovens, or cellular phones were compared by placing the same large sheet of aluminum foil with a square hole or rectangular band-shaped hole at the chest level (or at the side of the head with the cellular phone), with or without grounding the aluminum foil, using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Dysfunction Localization and Molecular Identification Methods with cancer related substances (i.e., Oncogen C-fos Ab2 and mercury in
We have shown previously that topical application of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol of green tea, prevents photocarcinogenesis in mice. EGCG prevents UVB-induced immunosuppression by inducing interleukin-12 (IL-12). As immunosuppression is a risk factor for photocarcinogenesis, we investigated the possibility that EGCG also prevents UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis through an IL-12-dependent DNA repair mechanism.
We have shown previously that endogenous deficiency of interleukin (IL)-12 promotes photocarcinogenesis in mice. To characterize the role of IL-12 deficiency in tumor angiogenesis, we developed IL-12p35 knockout (IL-12 KO) mice on a C3H/HeN background. IL-12 KO mice and their wild-type (WT) counterparts were subjected to a photocarcinogenesis protocol. When tumor yield was stabilized, samples of tumor and tumor-uninvolved UVB-exposed skin were collected and subjected to immunohistochemistry, gelatinolytic zymography, real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis of angiogenic factors.
IL-12 deficiency has been shown to promote photocarcinogenesis in mice. As UVB-induced inflammation is an important tumor-promoting event in the development of skin tumors, we determined the effects of IL-12-deficiency on UVB-induced inflammatory responses in mice. For this purpose, IL-12-knockout (IL-12 KO) and their wild-type counterparts were subjected to a photocarcinogenesis protocol; skin and tumor samples were collected at the termination of the experiment, and analyzed for biomarkers of inflammation and their mediators.
Consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in drinking water prevents photocarcinogenesis in mice; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Using IL-12p40 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type counterparts and an established photocarcinogenesis protocol, we found that although administration of GTPs (0.2%, w/v) in drinking water significantly reduced UVB-induced tumor development in wild-type mice, this treatment had a nonsignificant effect in IL-12-KO mice.
Light in the UVB spectrum (280-320 nm) induces a number of changes in the epidermis and dermis of mice and humans, resulting in a robust inflammatory response. A standardized black raspberry extract (BRE) has been effective in reducing signaling pathways commonly initiated by inflammatory stimuli. In this study, we determined whether this extract could reduce cutaneous UVB-induced inflammation and carcinogenesis. In our carcinogenesis model, female SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to one minimal erythemal dose of UVB thrice weekly on nonconsecutive days for 25 weeks.
Interleukin-12 (IL-12)-deficiency promotes photocarcinogenesis in mice; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation resulted in enhancement of the levels of cell survival kinases, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt (Ser(473)), p-ERK1/2, and p-p38 in the skin of IL-12p40 knockout (IL-12 KO) mice compared with the skin of wild-type mice. UV-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)/p65 in the skin of IL-12 KO mice was also more prominent.
Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies have implicated solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation in various skin diseases including, premature aging of the skin and melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Chronic UV radiation exposure-induced skin diseases or skin disorders are caused by the excessive induction of inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, etc. The use of chemopreventive agents, such as plant polyphenols, to inhibit these events in UV-exposed skin is gaining attention.