Attempts to correlate measures of intellectual ability with localized anatomical imaging features of the brain have yielded variable findings distributed across frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. To better define the gray and white matter correlates of intellectual ability and the effects of sex and age, we analyzed the brains of 105 healthy individuals, ages 7-57 years, who had a Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) of 70 or higher. We examined associations of FSIQ with cortical thickness and with white matter volume throughout the cerebrum.
General intelligence is a robust predictor of important life outcomes, including educational and occupational attainment, successfully managing everyday life situations, good health and longevity. Some neuronal correlates of intelligence have been discovered, mainly indicating that larger cortices in widespread parieto-frontal brain networks and efficient neuronal information processing support higher intelligence. However, there is a lack of established associations between general intelligence and any basic structural brain parameters that have a clear functional meaning.
Neuroimaging studies have become increasingly multimodal in recent years, with researchers typically acquiring several different types of MRI data and processing them along separate pipelines that provide a set of complementary windows into each subject's brain. However, few attempts have been made to integrate the various modalities in the same analysis. Linked ICA is a robust data fusion model that takes multi-modal data and characterizes inter-subject variability in terms of a set of multi-modal components.
Functional imaging studies have identified a matrix of structures in the brain that respond to noxious stimuli. Within this matrix, a division of function between sensory-discriminative and affective responses has so far been demonstrated by manipulating either pain intensity or unpleasantness under hypnosis in two different normal volunteer groups studied on separate occasions.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability and functional significance of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: Thirty-six patients (mean age 71 +/- 7 years) with mild to moderate AD (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] 19 +/- 5) participated in a biomarker study involving clinical assessments, brain imaging, and CSF and plasma collection over 1 year. BBB integrity was assessed with the CSF-albumin index (CSF-AI). RESULTS: BBB disruption was present in an important subgroup of patients (n = 8/36, 22%) at all time points measured.
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture stimulation elicits deqi, a composite of unique sensations that is essential for clinical efficacy according to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). There is lack of adequate experimental data to indicate what sensations comprise deqi, their prevalence and intensity, their relationship to acupoints, how they compare with conventional somatosensory or noxious response.
The present study was to examine the distribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) receptor immunoreactivity in the acupuncture points (acupoint), and determine the influences of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation on TRPV1 expression. EA stimulation of BL 40 was conducted in two sessions of 20 min separated by an 80 min interval in anesthetized rats. Sections of skin containing BL 40, and its non-meridian control were examined by immunolabeling with antibodies directed against TRPV1.
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), provide insights into the functional reorganization of the cortical motor system after stroke. This study explores the relationship between upper extremity motor function, white matter integrity, and BOLD response of cortical motor areas. METHODS: Seventeen patients met study inclusion criteria; of these 12 completed DTI assessment of white matter integrity and 9 completed fMRI assessment of motor-related activation.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the time of acceleration in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden, a common indicator of cerebrovascular pathology, in relation to conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the elderly. METHODS: A total of 181 cognitively intact elderly volunteers from the longitudinal, prospective, Oregon Brain Aging Study underwent yearly evaluations, including brain MRI, and cognitive testing. MRIs were analyzed for imaging markers of neurodegeneration: WMH and ventricular CSF (vCSF) volumes.
Neuroimage phenotyping for psychiatric and neurological disorders is performed using voxelwise analyses also known as voxel based analyses or morphometry (VBM). A typical voxelwise analysis treats measurements at each voxel (e.g., fractional anisotropy, gray matter probability) as outcome measures to study the effects of possible explanatory variables (e.g., age, group) in a linear regression setting. Furthermore, each voxel is treated independently until the stage of correction for multiple comparisons.